首先我們來介紹一下小提琴弦的組成。從低到高，四根琴弦分別為G弦（4弦）、D弦（3弦）、A弦（2弦）和E弦（1弦）。它們分別調為：g , d1 , a1 , e2 四個空弦音，它們之間都是五度的關係。而其中的a1音，正是標準音高440Hz（現在也有用444，或443的）。它們的唱名是：sol , re , la , mi 。
2.對準A弦的a1後再對D弦的d1，這時兩根弦同時拉響，直到re , la這兩個音完全沒有拍頻為止（也就是完全"純"）。然後利用已經準的D弦的d1來用同樣方法調G弦的g音；
現在小提琴E弦的鋼弦分為三種：純鋼弦、鍍鋼弦與脫氧鋼弦。最早的鋼弦是純鋼弦；近年則出現了許多鍍上其他金屬的鋼弦，像是鍍錫、鍍金、或是鍍白金。鍍金弦會帶來清亮、清晰並純粹的音色，受到很多人喜歡，然而也很快就會失效（隨著鍍金層掉落，有些樂器在從A弦換到空E弦時會發出雜音）；脫氧鋼弦一樣是用鋼作為基本素材，通常使用鉻鋼，比一般鋼弦的聲音少些棱角跟清亮，更加圓潤溫暖，但反應也比較慢。對於認為自己的鋼弦E弦聲音太尖銳的人，或是從A弦換到空E弦時會發出雜音的人來說，這是個好選擇，後者的情況會特別推薦D’Addario生產的「 Kaplan Solutions E」。
如同前文所說，緊度常與厚度搞混。每一種弦，即便是最便宜的學生用弦，都有三種緊度：輕度、中度、重度。腸弦的緊度平均來說會比鋼弦或合成弦來得低，此點可以從手指的易壓度來感受，腸弦很容易往下壓且能夠感覺到弦的振動。合成弦比腸弦緊度較高，如果想要比較暗且溫暖的音色的話（如Pirastro Evah Pirazza），則要選擇要當中稍微低緊度一點的弦，當然這也有例外（如Thomastik Infeld Blue跟Infeld Red，兩者幾乎有相同的緊度）。鋼弦則是所有弦種類中緊度最高的。
如果你是用一把「混弦」的樂器，第一件事就是先去找合格的製琴師做調整，有時只是動個琴橋便能有極大改善。如果想藉由改變弦來找到平衡的話，可以先試著改變各種厚度。另外，Thomastik提供Infeld Red（音色較暗）跟Infeld Blue（音色較亮）的產品，也是希望能讓人做出比較平衡的組合。要謹記如果今天使用不同種的弦，那麼緊度與厚度也都是影響音色平衡的關鍵。
Music is the sound of thinking.
A very important step for violin learners before practicing and playing is "tuning", but small tuning is the basis of all accurate performance. Do you really know how to tune? In this issue, we will systematically understand the knowledge of violin tuning and string selection.
How to tune a violin?
As violin learners, we all know the importance of tuning. If the strings themselves are "inaccurate" and "out of tune", we cannot practice and play. Of course, the seemingly simple tuning is actually a big question. Let's take a look at some basic common sense about tuning.
First, let's talk about the composition of the violin strings. From low to high, the four strings are G string (4 string), D string (3 string), A string (2 string) and E string (1 string). They are respectively tuned as: g , d1 , a1 , e2 four open strings, and they are all in the relationship of fifths. And the a1 sound is the standard pitch of 440Hz (now 444, or 443 is also used). Their roll names are: sol , re , la , mi .
The violin is a pure-tempered instrument, and the usual tuning method is to align the second string first:
1. The standard a1 tone of the A string is aligned. When right, you can use a standard a1 tuning fork for reference. Of course, there are many ways to take the standard tone. For convenience, you can use a common standard tone tube for mouth blowing; or the standard tone generator () made of crystal oscillators and integrated circuits is very convenient to use now;
In addition, of course, you can also use the Korg tuner to calibrate. When playing with the piano, it can be directly aligned with the a1 sound of the piano; in the band, the standard a1 sound is blown by the oboe.
2. Align the a1 of the A string and then the d1 of the D string. At this time, the two strings are played at the same time, until the two notes of re and la have no beat frequency at all (that is, completely "pure"). Then use the d1 of the D string that has been aligned to tune the g note of the G string in the same way;
3. Finally, use the a1 note of the A string to align the e2 note of the E string. The method is to pull out the fifth at the same time, until there is no beat frequency in complete harmony. Of course, in the process of tuning, the original a1 will change, which requires repeating this process many times until it is correct.
The above is the simple side. The complication is that the violin is pure tempered, and other instruments may be equal tempered. I take the piano violin sonata as an example. A pure-tempered violin should be played with a well-tempered piano, and the pure-tempered fifth is slightly wider than the well-tempered fifth. In other words, the equal-tempered fifth contains the beat frequency. At this time, if the violin adjusts the a1 tone and the piano very accurately, and there is no beat frequency at all, then it can be imagined that the e2 tone will be slightly higher, and the d1 and g will be slightly lower. For players and listeners with good hearing, corrections must be considered.
There are many ways to deal with it. I will only give one example. This is the compensation method introduced by the famous violin teacher Carl Fleish. The method he recommends is to align the lowest G string of the violin perfectly with the piano before playing and then tune the other three strings according to the pure-tempered method. In this way, the pitch of the rest of the open strings is slightly higher than the pitch of the piano, but in the process of playing, the pitch of the violin cannot be raised but may be slightly lowered.
In this way, the pitch of the violin is slightly higher at the beginning and slightly lower at the end of the whole performance. This compensates for the difference between the two legal systems to a certain extent. Of course, for most non-professional listeners, this gap is practically indistinguishable. However, if the performer can handle the intonation of the ensemble of two different tempered instruments, the general audience will feel that the artistic quality of the performance is improved. When the band is playing, for the violin, there is a similar need to use the auditory error of the human ear to compensate for the different pitch problems caused by different musical temperaments.
How do you choose strings for a violin?
The daily practice of the violin is inseparable from the tuning, but we all know that the strings of the violin are 'consumables'. In order to practice better, we also need to learn to choose suitable strings, so how should we choose the dazzling brands and materials? What about the strings of the violin? Below is our 'Guide to the Selection of Violin Strings'
String material, tightness, and thickness
1.Gut Strings: Gut strings were used when the violin was invented, and the design has remained unchanged for centuries. Compared with steel and synth strings, gut strings are less tight and have a richer and more complex tone in overtones. Compared with other strings, gut strings are easier to press due to the low tightness and string formation method, and the response speed of the strings is also slower, which requires the player to use a bow to adjust the timbre. Gut strings also need to be tuned from time to time, especially when the temperature changes drastically, such as when exposed to strong stage lights.
2.Steel strings: Since the 20th century, violins have used steel strings, and many methods of string formation and various materials have been invented, the most common being chrome steel. Steel strings soon became widely used and were especially favored by cellists. Basically, steel strings are quick to respond and give a very clear, focused, and clean tone, but don't expect the depth and complexity to be heard from steel strings either.
Steel strings are generally less preferred by classical players, but in other areas of music, it is reversed. More fragile instruments also use steel strings, which are the cheapest strings on the market after all.
Now there are three types of steel strings for violin E strings: pure steel strings, plated steel strings, and deoxidized steel strings. The earliest steel strings were pure steel strings; in recent years, there have been many steel strings plated with other metals, such as tin, gold, or platinum. Gold-plated strings give a clean, clear, and pure tone, which is loved by many, but also fails very quickly (some instruments will rattle when changing from A to an empty E string as the gold plating falls off); Deoxidized steel strings also use steel as the basic material, usually, chrome steel, which is less angular and clearer than ordinary steel strings, more round and warm, but the response is slower. This is a good choice for anyone who thinks their steel E string is too sharp, or for those who are going to make noise when switching from an A string to an empty E string, in which case D'Addario is especially recommended. "Kaplan Solutions E".
3.Synthetic Strings: About 40 years ago, Thomastik-Infeld, the Austrian string maker, produced "Dominant strings", which are strings made of Perlon (a type of nylon), which have achieved unprecedented success, and some people even believe that this string Changed the history of violin playing. Synthetic strings sound a lot like gut strings, but are more stable in tonality and maintain a more focused sound in more complex overtones. There have also been many attempts over the past 15 years to use other materials to create richer sounds, so-called "hybrid strings", these strings sound less gut-like, but sound more interesting in their sonic character. meticulous.
Although often confused with tightness, thickness, or width, is a completely different thing. Relaxed gut strings can be used as a good example of explanation. When modulating the same pitch as steel strings and synth strings, the thickness of the gut strings needs to be increased, but its tightness is still low. When players use gut strings, they usually need the help of the luthier to widen the bridge so that they can fit thicker gut strings.
As a beginner, you may find that there are three different thicknesses of strings at the store. Thinner strings (sometimes labeled "weich" or "dolce") will have less tightness, brighter sound, and quicker response, but also lower volume, based on a medium thickness string. Thick strings (sometimes labeled "stark" or "forte") are complete upside down, producing a darker tone and a slower response.
As mentioned earlier, tightness is often confused with thickness. Every string, even the cheapest student strings, has three tensions: light, medium, and heavy. Gut strings are on average less tight than steel or synthetic strings. This can be felt from the ease of finger compression. Gut strings are easy to press down and you can feel the vibration of the string. Synth strings are tighter than gut strings, so if you want a darker, warmer tone (like Pirastro Evah Piazza), choose a string that's a little less tight in the middle, although there are exceptions (like Thomastik Infeld Blue and Infeld Red, both have almost the same tightness). Steel strings are the tightest of all string types.
Usually, when experimenting with different strings, one will choose a medium tightness string, and use other tightnesses if there are other needs. Some instruments with high tension strings can cause the sound to not come out.
String Winding: In recent years, string manufacturers have provided many interesting and exotic string mixtures, especially steel strings. Using heavier materials such as tungsten to make string mixtures can increase the tightness of the strings. Also, the thickness is lower than that of bolts made of aluminum or silver.
Also, pay attention to the "chemistry" of the player, some with an acidic sweat constitution, it is easy to see their aluminum hybrid strings corrode, revealing a rust-grey color. It is suggested that these people should switch to other string mixes such as silver.
Is "mixing strings" appropriate?
The ideal state is that all four strings of a piano are the same, but in fact, everyone will "mix strings" in pursuit of the best sound. Most of the time people will use the same kind on the lower third string, and then another string on the higher.
If you are using a "mixed string" instrument, the first thing to do is to find a qualified luthier to make adjustments. Sometimes just moving the bridge can make a huge difference. If you want to find balance by changing the strings, try changing the thickness first. In addition, Thomastik offers Infeld Red (dark tone) and Infeld Blue (bright tone) products, which also hope to make people make a more balanced combination. Keep in mind that if a different kind of string is used today, both tightness and thickness are also critical to the balance of the tone.
String Life: When Should You Change Strings?
Which strings have a longer lifespan? Although the price varies, the life of the string has nothing to do with the price. Lifespan depends on how you play and the "chemical reaction" your body may have on the strings. Your sweat and how you play will affect the life of the strings, which may take a few months, or even once a year. . In any case, remember to loosen the strings after playing. In addition, the condition of the strings is gradually deteriorating, the speed is very slow, and sometimes it is difficult to notice that the sound has become dull and lifeless, and it is only discovered by changing the strings.
The choice of strings is quite complex and diverse, which makes people wonder "where are the best strings?" Strings", carefully consider your needs, and take a good look at the various combinations
Music is the sound of thinking.