松香是怎麼來的？在亞洲、歐 洲、北美洲等地，我們可以從不同的松樹上採集到超過一百多種的松香。採集松香的過程與採集橡膠十分相似，都是先將樹皮扒開，然後在樹身上切一個 V 字形的溝槽，讓樹脂流入到下面的容器裡。在收集各類品牌的松香了松脂後，也可加上些其它的樹脂 （如柏樹或杉樹的樹脂） 混合在一起。配製比例的多少也同提琴油漆一樣，各有各的秘密。按一定比例調配後的松脂經過過濾及加熱就會完全溶解。等到它們再度冷卻（約 30 分鐘） 之後，就會變得平整光滑。再略作包裝修飾，在盒子里或小塊布片上，就可使用了。松香顏色之深淺，取決於該松香松脂採集的季節。晚冬初春採集的松脂，在提煉硬化後呈金黃或琥珀色。而夏季、秋季採集的松脂在做成鬆香後則呈深色。
一般地說 , 較便宜的學生用松香都是四方盒子包裝，且粉粒較粗較多。而高級的松香則有圓形布裝或盒裝，其粉末較細較霜。但無論是用哪一種鬆香，都不宜擦得太多，以免松香粉末滿天亂飛。在弓毛能夠發音之後，只要把琴弓在松香上來回往復擦三五下就夠了。遺留在提琴面板上的松香粉會吸收空氣中的微細水分慢慢地結成硬塊，這對樂器是不利的。所以每次拉完琴後，都要用一塊細軟的棉布把琴上的灰塵與松香細末擦抹乾淨。千萬不要忘記哦。對清理琴弦上結的松香層，最好用棉布，千萬不要用酒精，因為酒精若掉到面板上，會嚴重的腐蝕琴面板。松香用完後，要好好包起來，因為松香容易破碎，弄到滿琴盒都是松香粉末，那是最大的災難。
Music is the sound of thinking.
Violin rosin is a very important auxiliary object. But how much does it play a role in the sound of the violin? It still seems a bit vague to most violin users. In the face of various brands of rosin, there are various colors: red, yellow, dark, light, and so on. You will ask blankly: Which rosin should I use? I hope this article can resolve your confusion about choosing rosin.
1. How does rosin work?
The fiddlers rub the rosin on the bow hair, and the fine powder of rosin sticks to the tiny barbs of the bow hair. When the bow hairs run on the strings, the force point where the rosin powder adheres to the strings is destroyed, and the strings are rubbed and vibrated to produce sound. Therefore, rosin plays a crucial role in this process, and its quality and type have a considerable impact on the pronunciation of the violin.
2. From the origin of rosin?
How did the rosin come from? In Asia, Europe, North America and other places, we can collect more than one hundred kinds of rosin from different pine trees. The process of collecting rosin is very similar to collecting rubber. The bark is first peeled off, and then a V-shaped groove is cut into the tree to allow the resin to flow into the container below. After collecting various brands of rosin and rosin, you can also add some other resins (such as cypress or fir resin) and mix them together. The amount of preparation ratio is the same as that of violin paint, and each has its own secret. The rosin prepared in a certain proportion will be completely dissolved after filtering and heating. Once they cool down again (about 30 minutes), they will be flat and smooth. After a little packaging modification, in the box or on a small piece of cloth, it is ready to use. The depth of the rosin color depends on the season in which the rosin and rosin were collected. Pine resin collected in late winter and early spring is golden or amber in color after refining and hardening. On the other hand, the rosin collected in summer and autumn has a dark color after being made into rosin.
3. The choice of violin rosin?
So, how should we choose the rosin that suits us? For student use, there are some cheaper but durable boxed rosin available. This type of rosin is coarser and more powdery. In order to control the timbre of the violin, professionals with higher requirements prefer to use fine-grained and refined rosin, which is of course more expensive. When choosing a dark or light rosin, it depends on the climate. Dark rosin can be used in summer or dry climates. In winter or humid climates, light-colored rosin will not be too sticky. Furthermore, light-colored rosin is generally harder than dark-colored rosin, so it is suitable for pitched violins and violas; softer dark rosin is suitable for cellos and double basses (Dabes).
Generally speaking, if it is a chamber music or a recording studio, a softer rosin is more suitable. On the contrary, on the stage, especially outdoors, a harder rosin is more suitable. From a geographical point of view, tropical regions are more suitable for harder rosin, while colder regions are more suitable for softer rosin. When applying rosin to the bow hair, if the rosin is too hard to be applied to the bow hair (especially after new molting), you can put a little rosin powder on the cloth, and first use a bow to pull on the cloth like a violin few times. You can also scratch some cracks on the surface of the rosin to make it easier for the bow hair to bite the rosin. Points to note when using rosin: The rosin on the bow hair will melt at high temperatures.
Some manufacturers also add some metal components such as gold, silver, lead, copper fine powder to rosin. These substances alter the properties of the rosin, which in turn changes the tone of the strings. For example, rosin with gold dust will help the strings to produce a warm, clear sound, so it is suitable for all kinds of stringed instruments. Rosin with added silver powder produces a concentrated, bright sound that is more suitable for violins and viola. The rosin with lead powder is soft and not sticky, and the pronunciation is mild and clear, so it is also beneficial to the violin and viola. The rosin with copper powder is mostly used for the rosin used by students. Because this rosin is easier to pronounce for beginners.
4. Correct use of violin rosin
Generally speaking, the cheaper student rosin is packed in square boxes, and the powder is coarser. The high-grade rosin is available in round cloth or box, and its powder is finer and creamier. But no matter what kind of rosin is used, it is not advisable to rub too much, so as to avoid the rosin powder flying all over the sky. After the bow hair can be pronounced, it is enough to rub the bow back and forth on the rosin three or five times. The rosin powder left on the top of the violin will absorb the fine moisture in the air and slowly form a hard lump, which is not good for the instrument. So every time after playing the piano, use a soft cotton cloth to wipe off the dust and fine rosin on the piano. Don't forget it. For cleaning the rosin layer on the strings, it is best to use cotton cloth, never use alcohol, because if the alcohol falls on the top, it will seriously corrode the top of the piano. After the rosin is used up, it must be wrapped well, because the rosin is easy to break, and the whole box is full of rosin powder, which is the biggest disaster.
Music is the sound of thinking.