2022-06-18

「小提琴」小提琴家凱莉-霍爾-托普金斯的6個流行弓法技巧| 「violin」6 Bow Stroke Tips from Violinist Kelly Hall-Tompkins

弦樂演奏者在為他們的聲音增加細微差別時,有許多技巧和竅門,而這些常用的竅門都是在弓法上。從撥弦到頓弓,以及介於兩者之間的所有弓法,這裡有一些技巧可以改善你的右手演奏。 "小提琴家約書亞-貝爾曾經說過:"當你演奏一首小提琴曲時,你是一個講故事的人,你在講一個故事"。要講好一個故事,講得有聲有色,你需要正確的詞彙和細微的表達。   對於弦樂演奏者來說,這意味著要掌握基本的弓法。為了幫助你掌握這些動作,本期逆月音樂整理了著名小提琴家凱利-霍爾-湯普金斯的6種流行弓法的方法。     1. 挑弓(科萊弓法)Collé。將弓子在離弓舌四英寸的地方壓到弦上,手指彎曲,然後撥動–記住,collé是法語中的 "膠水"。霍爾-湯普金斯說:"這是一個為高級學生準備的動作,只有在真正掌握了穩固的握弓和發聲方法後才可以使用。它以手指的力量和靈活性為中心,與整個弓臂的機械性相分離,是許多其他運弓的基礎。練習Collé時,只用手指,在蛙部做緩慢的彈跳動作,無論是向下還是向上,都能達到超強的發音和重量感的 "K "的效果。練習使手指有足夠的力量在不離開弓子的情況下進行盤旋和釋放,不使用任何手臂的動作,而且是向下和向上的。"   2. 重斷弓(馬特萊)(Martelé)。這種強烈的敲擊動作要求每一個連續的音符都要與弓子的運勢相隔離。霍爾-湯普金斯說:"在許多只有在掌握了堅實的柯雷基礎之後才能掌握的弓法中,這是一種,"。 "每一個筆劃都應該有一個清晰、明確的開始,也應該有一個有重量的、快速的拉臂。為了獲得最大的清晰度,重要的是發聲點要與弓子的速度相匹配,更接近於琴橋面,而且弓子從弓腳到弓尖要保持直線。" 3. 分弓:Detaché寬大但獨立的筆觸,介於連音和頓音之間。 "霍爾-湯普金斯說:"比挑弓更平易近人,一個漂亮的分弓可以給獨奏作品帶來輕快和精神,給管弦樂小提琴部分的段落帶來清晰的感覺。 "為了達到這個目的,像往常一樣,要確保上弓與下弓相匹配,筆觸一般在中間點或彈跳點以上。"   4.斷音。 Staccato上弓使用大量的手腕和手指動作來實現快速、短促的爆發。下弓採用比正常手腕更平的動作。霍爾-湯普金斯說:"與分弓相似,我認為這個弓法是一個較短的版本,不一定要用全弓,它對於較快的節奏和段落來說應該是更容易的。同樣,一個強有力的弓法是一個重要的基礎,所以一定要把它作為你練習的一部分。"  5. 拋弓Spiccato: 匈牙利小提琴教育家卡爾-弗萊什指出,在斯皮卡託中,"演奏者是主動的,弓是被動的"。霍爾-湯普金斯說:"這是讓我們飛翔的第一種筆觸,在這一點上Collé對於實現騰飛是絕對重要的。首先,在四分之一音符等於50或60的情況下,開始練習紮實的套弓基礎。在產生了穩定的聲音後,逐漸發展到八分音符、三分音符、十六分音符、五分音符、六分音符和三十二分音符,在每一個音符上都要平等地離弦,並在更快的音符值中包括前臂。"   6.連弓Legato: 一個長而流暢的運弓,使用更多的弓長來產生流暢的效果。霍爾-托普金斯說:"與表面現象相反,這種運弓方式並不簡單地局限於一種上下的機械性,"。霍爾-湯普金斯說:"應該有一個聽起來比各部分之和更大的連接組織,使旋律具有超越小節線的歌唱能力。有很多優美的演奏仍然錯過了這種難以捉摸的能力。為了練習它,要確保靠在弓子的變化上,沒有任何明顯的突起,但也沒有衰減–持續,持續!     音樂就是思想著的聲音。   Music is the sound of thinking.   ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   String players have a bevy of tips and tricks up their sleeve when it comes to adding nuance to their sound, and many of those go-to tricks are all in the bow stroke. From pizzicato to martelé and all the bow strokes in between, here are a few tips to improve your right-hand repertoire. “When you play a violin piece,” violinist Joshua Bell once said, “you are a story teller and you are telling a story.” To tell a good story, articulately, you need the right vocabulary and nuanced expression. For string players, that means gaining a command of basic bow strokes. Your teacher will help you to learn these fundamental bow strokes, but to help you master these motions, Strings asked Kelly Hall-Tompkins—a popular concert violinist who played the title role of the fiddler on the recent Broadway revival of Fiddler on the Roof—for tips on perfecting ten popular bow strokes. 1. Collé: Press the bow four inches from the frog into the string, with the fingers curved, and pluck—remember that collé is the French term for “glue.” Says Hall-Tompkins: “This is a stroke for the advanced student, only after a solid bow grip and sound production are really mastered. It centers on strength and agility of the fingers, isolated from the mechanics of the complete bow arm, and is the foundation of so many other strokes. Practice collé as a fingers-only, slow-motion springing action at the frog, both down and up, achieving a super-articulate and weighty ‘K’ effect. Practice making the fingers strong enough to coil and release without coming off of the bow, without using any arm motion, and equal down and up.” 2. Martelé: This strongly hammered motion requires each successive note to be isolated with the bow stroke. “Among the many strokes that can be mastered only after mastering a strong foundation of collé, this is one,” Hall-Tompkins says. “Each stroke should have a clear, articulate start and also a weighted, fast arm drawn. For maximum clarity, it’s important that the sounding point be matched to the speed of the bow, closer to the bridge, and that the bow remains straight from frog to tip.” 3. Detaché: Broad, but separate, strokes that fall midway between legato and staccato. “More easy-going than a martelé, a nice detaché can bring lightness and spirit to solo character pieces and clarity to orchestral violin section passages,” Hall-Tompkins says. “To achieve this, as always, make sure that the up-bows match the down-bows and that the stroke is generally above the middle or bounce point.” 4. Staccato: Up-bow staccato uses lots of wrist and finger action to achieve quick, short bursts. Down-bow staccato employs a flatter than normal wrist. Says Hall-Tompkins: “Similar to a martelé, I think of this stroke as a shorter version in which the full bow is not necessarily used, and it should be more facile for faster tempi and passagework. Again, a strong collé is an important foundation, so always make that part of your practice routine.”  5. Spiccato: The Hungarian violin pedagogue Carl Flesch noted that in spiccato, “the player is active, the bow is passive.” Says Hall-Tompkins: “This first of the strokes that allow us to fly is where collé is absolutely paramount to ever achieving liftoff. Begin by practicing a solid foundation of collé at quarter note equals 50 or 60. After producing consistent-sounding strokes, gradually progress to eighths, triplets, 16ths, quintuplets, sextuplets, and 32nds, coming off the string equally on each and including the forearm in the faster note values.” 6. Legato: A long, fluid stroke that uses more of the bow length to produce a smooth effect. “This is a stroke which, contrary to appearances, is not simply limited to an up and down mechanic,” Hall-Tompkins says. “There should be connective tissue that sounds greater than the sum of the parts, giving melodies the ability to sing beyond the bar line. There is a lot of beautiful playing that still misses this elusive ability. To practice it, make sure to lean into bow changes, without any overt surges, but without decaying either—sustain, sustain!”   音樂就是思想著的聲音。   Music is the sound of thinking.

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2022-06-11

「小提琴」 學小提琴的你還不知道這些音樂術語嗎?快來學習收藏吧| 「violin」Don't you know these musical terms as a violinist? Come and learn to collect

    1、音樂術語的作用              音樂術語就像一道菜中的調料,你是放鹽還是放醬油,放糖還是放辣椒。那做成來的味道差了遠了。好的廚師能恰當的放調料。好音樂家能很好的利用音樂術語和表情記號。是作曲家在音樂創作時加以深思熟慮後添加的,目的就是為作品增添音樂色彩以及給作品賦予生命。   音樂術語可以讓我們在演奏作品時有情感的變化,一部沒有情感的作品,就如同一杯白開水,淡而無味。       2、音樂術語的重要性         音樂術語和音樂表情術語在音樂中無處不在。很多人在演奏音符的過程中,往往忽略了音樂術語的重要性,不管是中國音樂還是歐洲音樂,不管是聲樂還是器樂作品中都處處伴隨著音樂術語和音樂術語,它就像音樂的靈魂,在作品中如果沒有了音樂表情術語,那麼音樂將失去其本身所具備的內涵,而顯得索然無味,沒有強弱、快慢,整首曲子就沒有低估高潮,也就反映不出曲子所表現的是快樂的,憂傷的,悲壯的還是愁苦的。這就是音樂術語所體現的靈魂。           音樂本身就是體現人內心深處的思想感情的,如果音樂體現不出的思想情感,那就好像人沒有了靈魂,只有軀殼的音樂就不叫音樂。由此可見,音樂術語在音樂中的重要性。       3.音樂術語的分類   音樂術語分為——①表情術語 ②力度術語 ③速度術語     ①常用的表情術語 Common Expression Terms     ②常用的力度術語 Common Potency Dimension Terms         ③常用的速度術語 Common Terms Fro Speed           通過學習意大利語表情術語,我也能進一步了解和學習外國音樂作品,提升自己的音樂知識範疇,使自己更好得發展。           音樂就是思想著的聲音。   Music is the sound of thinking.   ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________     1. The role of musical terms   Musical terms are like the seasoning in a dish, do you put salt or soy sauce, sugar or chili. That made it tasted far worse. A good cook can put seasonings properly. Good musicians make good use of musical terms and emoticons. It is added by the composer after careful consideration when creating music, the purpose is to add musical color to the work and give life to the work.   Musical terminology allows us to have emotional changes when playing a work. A work without emotion is like a glass of boiled water, bland and tasteless.       2. The importance of musical terms   Musical terms and musical expression terms are ubiquitous in music. Many people often ignore the importance of musical terms in the process of playing notes. Whether it is Chinese music or European music, whether it is vocal or instrumental music, musical terms and musical terms are everywhere. It is like the soul of music, If there is no musical expression term in the work, then the music will lose its own connotation, and it will appear dull, without strength, speed, or slowness. Happy, sad, tragic or sad. This is the soul embodied in musical terms.       Music itself embodies the thoughts and feelings deep in the human heart. If music cannot reflect the thoughts and feelings, it is as if people have no soul, and music with only the body is not called music. This shows the importance of musical terms in music.       Classification of musical terms       3.Music terms are divided into—   ①expression terms ②dynamic terms ③speed terms       ①Common Expression Terms       ②Common Potency Dimension Terms     ③Common Terms Fro Speed              

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2022-06-04

「小提琴」小提琴技巧之 實現快速清晰“換弦“”就這幾招 | 「violin」The violin technic about achieving a quick and clear "string change" with these few tricks

"Bariolage "是一個法語單詞,指的是一種快速換弦的弓法,通常是在開弦和 "停弦 "之間,即手指向下的弦。這種產生快速音符的效果被廣泛用於各種音樂中,從巴赫到新音樂小提琴等等。成功演奏雙音階樂曲的關鍵之一是掌握各種跨弦的技巧,然後知道何時運用每種技巧。一個好的開始是學習兩種最基本的跨弦技術,然後學習如何將它們應用於快速換弦。   換弦,從肩部開始的大肌肉運動         簡單地說:在不同的琴弦上演奏需要不同的手臂角度,而從一根琴弦到另一根琴弦的變化涉及到角度的改變。例如,在小提琴的G弦上演奏時,手臂和肘部是相當高的。轉到D弦時,手臂和肘部下降到較低的位置(從肩關節處鉸接),彈A弦時再次下降,彈E弦時再次下降。了解彈奏每根弦時手臂和肘部的正確角度,以及彈奏雙停的EA、ED、DG和中提琴的GC弦時的角度是很重要的。當用手在兩根弦之間切換時,雙停的角度會非常有用。            在一定程度上,用較大的肌肉來換弦,用單獨的弓子來換弦是可能的,但是一旦到了非常快的速度,手臂就會開始像一隻慌亂的雞的狂躁的翅膀。這就是為什麼弦樂手還需要掌握如何使用手部較小的肌肉進行換弦(見下一節)。但重要的是要記住,大肌肉在兩個方面起著重要的作用:首先,你需要準確地設置和調整手臂的這些較大的角度來促進弦的交叉。其次,當雙線演奏還涉及到滑音或兩根以上的弦時,大肌肉的作用往往比小肌肉更好。     換弦,腕部的小肌肉運動           在兩根弦之間快速切換往往需要使用手部的小肌肉運動,從手腕處開始移動。如果你以前從來沒有這樣做過,你的第一步可能只是找到這些肌肉並加強你的大腦激活它們的能力。這裡有一個方法:用左手握住你的右手腕,用你的右手上下揮動,不要移動你手臂的任何其他部分來這樣做。接下來,用你的手順時針打圈,從手腕開始移動手,但不移動手臂的任何其他部位。            移到小提琴上:首先將弓子放在A弦上。用上述同樣的動作,把你的手翻起來,把弓子搖到D弦上。再把它翻下來,搖回A弦。用手的這種翻轉動作來回搖動。你可以試著用你的左手握住弓子的手腕,以確保你在弦間搖動時沒有移動你手臂的任何其他部分。一開始可能會覺得這個動作很馬虎,你的弓子可能會側著落到琴桿上。在開始的時候,允許有這種馬虎的感覺,只是為了熟悉這個動作。然後,隨著你對這個動作的熟悉,你可以把手指放得更鬆一些,看看你能不能在演奏的過程中,把弓子的角度保持得很直。         接下來,試著用小弓子在開闊的A弦和開闊的D弦之間進行切換:在下弦演奏下弓,在上弦演奏上弓–在這個例子中,D弦演奏下弓,A弦演奏上弓。你可以用你的前臂做一些水平運動來做上弓和下弓,但是換弦的動作完全來自手腕。       如何將換弦的技巧應用於特定的巴里歐拉琴段。三個例子   1. "魔鬼的夢"   例1(如下),來自小提琴曲 "魔鬼的夢",兩根相鄰的弦之間用不同的弓子進行了交叉。        琴弦的交叉主要是通過手腕的圓周運動來實現的,在低處的琴弦上做下弓,在高處的琴弦上做上弓。練習時,像往常一樣演奏,但當你到了有交叉弦的樂段時,要演奏開放弦(例2)。關於左手的注意:在交替的弦上演奏固定的音符時,不要抬起你的手指。為了使你的左手保持平靜,你可以試著把低弦上的音符練成四分音符(例3)。即使在做雙音符的時候,也要繼續用這種方式來彈奏。         2. 巴赫的快板        巴赫的《快板》是鈴木小提琴學校第八冊中的第四首作品,它提供了很多雙音練習。它的一部分(5-15毫米)包含了上面描述的基本的雙弦撥動,然而在第16毫米(例4),一切都改變了,增加了雙音滑音,一直持續到第19毫米。學生們經常試圖繼續使用手腕的動作(通常是新發現的)來演奏這一段,但是手腕的動作在這裡導致了不均勻的音符。在這裡,我們必須改用手臂的動作。為了停止手腕的運動,想像在你的手腕上打上石膏,同時使用所有較大的手臂運動。首先用開放的弦進行練習(例5):用手腕的弓子做單獨的弓子AEAE;然後改成用手臂的弓子做滑音DA EA DA EA。在開放的弦上練習滑音,直到手臂的動作從肩上完全流暢,音符聽起來完全均勻。它可以幫助強調最低和最高的音符。       順便提一下,當這段音樂在第20小節進入四個滑音的時候,動作仍然主要來自手臂,有一些非常微妙的手腕動作來移動到最低弦。     3. 巴赫E大調第三帕蒂塔中的前奏曲,供小提琴獨奏使用       巴赫的六首小提琴奏鳴曲和帕蒂塔中的最後一首的前奏,也許包含了小提琴曲目中最流行的雙弦樂的例子。這個樂章包含了大量的雙弦撥動,但當巴赫在其中加入第三根弦時,事情就變得棘手了(例6)。 (這一段出現在第17-28毫米,然後在第67-78毫米再次出現)。在這裡,演奏者必須連續在三根弦之間,使用不同的弓子。從技術上講,在A和E之間的兩根弦上,必須使用手腕的動作,然後使用修改過的手臂動作,從A到D,再回到A。因此,這是兩種運動之間的不斷交替,在開始時非常棘手。          開始時,要把這兩個不同的動作分開(例7)。 A-E-A-E來自手和手腕;A-D-A-D來自手臂和肩膀。 (把這個動作看成是從 "肘部 "抬起來達到D,或者是肘部的小圓圈,可能在心理上會有幫助)。在開放弦上,把這些動作放在一起:手腕-手臂-手腕-手臂(或手腕-肘部-手腕-肘部)。手臂必須來迴旋轉,從EA級的手腕交叉到D級,以抓住低音。在所有這些音符中,手將保持運動狀態(例8)。當這種感覺很舒服時,再加上左手的手指。             音樂就是思想著的聲音。 Music is the sound of thinking. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________     “Bariolage” is a French word for a bowing technique that involves rapid changing of strings, often between open strings and “stopped” strings—that is, strings with the fingers down. The effect, which produces a rapid flurry of notes, is used in a great variety of music, from Bach to bluegrass fiddle and beyond. One of the keys to success in playing bariolage passages is to master the various techniques for crossing strings—and then to know when to apply each technique. A good place to start is to work on two of the most basic techniques for crossing strings, then learning how to apply them to bariolage.     Crossing Strings: Large-Muscle Motion from the Shoulder To put it simply: playing on different strings requires different angles of the arm, and changing from one string to another involves changing that angle. For example, to play on the violin’s G string, the arm and elbow are quite high. Moving to the D string, the arm and elbow drop lower (hinging from the shoulder joint), dropping again for the A string and again for the E string. It’s important to know the proper arm and elbow angle for playing each of the strings, as well as for the double-stop EA, ED, DG, and, on the viola, GC strings. The double-stop angle can be very useful when toggling between two strings with the hand.   It is possible, to a degree, to use the larger muscles to change strings for bariolage passages with separate bows, but once one gets to a very rapid speed, the arm begins to look like the manic wing of a flustered chicken. That’s why a string player also needs to master how to use the smaller muscles of the hand for string-crossings (see next section).   But it’s important to remember that the large muscles play an important role in two respects: first, you’ll need to accurately set and adjust these larger angles of the arm to facilitate string-crossings. And second, the larger muscles often work better than the smaller ones in cases when the bariolage also involves slurs or more than two strings.   Crossing Strings: Small-Muscle Motion from the Wrist Toggling rapidly between two strings often requires using the small-muscle motions of the hand, moving from the wrist. If you’ve never done this before, your first step may be simply finding those muscles and strengthening your brain’s ability to activate them. Here’s one way to do that: holding your right wrist with your left hand, wave up and down with your right hand, not moving any other part of your arm to do so. Next, make clockwise circles with your hand, moving the hand from the wrist but not moving any other parts of your arm.   Moving to the violin: first rest the bow on the A string. Using the same motion as above, flip up your hand to rock the bow to the D string. Flip it back down to rock back to the A. Rock back and forth, using that flipping motion in the hand. You can try holding your bow wrist with your left hand, to make sure you are not moving any other part of your arm as you rock between the strings.   This may feel like a sloppy motion at first, and your bow might fall sideways onto the stick. In the beginning, allow for that sloppiness, just to get familiar with the motion. Then, as you get better at it, loosen your fingers more and see if you can angle the stick to stay upright as you rock from string to string.       Next, try toggling between the open A and open D using small bows: play down bow on the lower string and up bow on the upper string—in this case, down bow on D, up bow on A. Now send this motion out into your hand, using those clockwise circles, until you are not moving anything but your hand, from your wrist, to cross strings. You can use some horizontal motion from your forearm for the up and down bows, but the string-crossing motion comes completely from the wrist.   How to Apply String-Crossing Techniques to Specific Bariolage Passages: Three Examples 1. “Devil’s Dream” In Example 1 (below), from the fiddle tune “Devil’s Dream,” the bariolage occurs between two adjacent strings, using separate bows.   String crossings are achieved primarily with circular hand motion from the wrist, going down bow on the lower strings and up on the higher strings. Practice by playing it as usual, but when you get to the measures with bariolage, play open strings (Ex. 2).   A note about the left hand: don’t lift your fingers for the fixed notes played on the alternate strings. To keep your left hand calm, try practicing the notes on the lower strings as quarter notes (Ex. 3). Continue to finger this way, even while doing the bariolage. 2. Allegro by Bach The Bach Allegro that appears as the fourth piece in the Suzuki Violin School Book 8 provides a lot of practice for bariolage. A portion of it (mm. 5–15) contains the basic two-string toggling described above, however everything changes at m. 16 (Ex. 4), with the addition of two-note slurs that last through m. 19.   Students very often try to continue to employ the (often newfound) wrist motion to this passage, but wrist motion here results in unevenly executed notes. Here, one must change to an arm motion. To stop the motion in the wrist, imagine having a cast on your wrist while using all larger arm motions.       Start by practicing this with open strings (Ex. 5): bowing from the wrist for the separate bows AEAE; then change to bowing from the arm for slurring DA EA DA EA. Practice the slurs on open strings until the arm movement is completely smooth from the shoulder and the notes sound completely even. It can help to accent the lowest and highest notes.   Incidentally, when this passage goes into four slurred notes at m. 20, the motion remains mostly from the arm, with some very subtle wrist motion for movement to the lowest string.   3. Preludio from Bach Partita No. 3 in E major for solo violin The introductory movement in the last of J.S. Bach’s Six Sonatas and Partitas for solo violin contains perhaps the most popular examples of bariolage in the violin repertoire. The movement contains plenty of two-string toggling, but things get trickier when Bach adds a third string to the mix (Ex. 6). (This passage occurs in mm. 17–28, then again in mm. 67–78).   Here the player must go between three strings consecutively, using separate bows. Technically, one must use the wrist motion for the upper two strings, between the A and the E, then use a modified arm motion to rock down from A to D and back. So it is a constant alternation between the two kinds of motions—very tricky in the beginning.   Start by separating the two different motions (Ex. 7): A-E-A-E from the hand and wrist; A-D-A-D from the arm and shoulder. (It may be helpful mentally to think of this as lifting from the “elbow” to reach the D, or tiny elbow circles.)   On open strings, put these motions together: wrist-arm-wrist-arm (or wrist-elbow-wrist-elbow). The arm must swivel back and forth, from the EA level for the wrist crossing to the D level to catch the lower note. The hand will remain in motion for all of these notes (Ex. 8). When this feels comfortable, add in the left-hand fingers.       音樂就是思想著的聲音。 Music is the sound of thinking.  

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2022-05-28

「小提琴」搞定這5個方法,小提琴音準沒問題! | 「violin」Get these 5 methods, the violin pitch is no problem!

  1、練習音階是固定音準的基礎。   我們說每天都要練 音階,目的就是為了把每個音拉準。對於大多數提琴愛好者和初學者來說,最愛練習和演奏的是那些讓人感動的完美的旋律,最不愛練習的可能就是枯躁的音階了。   其實,堅持練習音階,是建立和鞏固內心的音高抽象位置的最簡單最直接的方法。許多情況下,音階的階梯型出現或部分出現可作為旋律出現在提琴曲中。在所有的小提琴作品中,那些輝煌的快速經過句和高難度的華彩樂段都是各種音階的組合。   同時,音階也可以建立手的框架,更好地建立手指的觸感。偉大的小提琴演奏家海菲茨說:“小提琴演奏技術的基礎就是音階,它是小提琴演奏技術最重要的方面。”可見,練習音階,要作為提琴演奏者最為重要的基礎練習,一定要做到每天堅持練習、認真對待,對解決提琴各方面的問題尤其是音準問題將有莫大幫助。下面我以對單音階練習的具體方法為例:   我們在練習單音階的時候首先要搞清楚它是什麼調性的,這一點比較弱智,不過必須要得到重視才行,每串音階起步的第一個音符必須極度精確。否則拉著拉著所有的音就全都不在應有的位置上了。       經常鬧笑話的是:拉一個G大調的音階拉完後的最後一個音和G弦對一下就發現差了好大一截,(拉過小提琴的朋友們是不是有過這樣的經歷啊?)       這就是我們在拉琴的時候音漸漸的不准確,漸漸的所有的音符全都偏離了正常的軌道,但是我們的耳朵卻感覺不到,因此在拉一串音階的時候我們除了要準確第一個音符的時候,在拉到可以和空弦相同的音符的時候都要下意識和空弦對一下,(其實不光是和空弦一樣的音符有參照音,其他所有的音符都可以通過5度,3度和6度來調整自己的音準)       在一串音符裡所有可以和空弦相對應的音符全部對準確,我們這一串音符音準的框架也就有了個保障,至少上面所出現的問題是不會再次出現了~每次練習的時候每個音符的音都要很準確,我們的耳朵一定要監督好自己的手,否則的話,錯誤重複100次還是錯誤,永遠不會正確的! 2、用聽覺指導音準   對於聽覺沒有問題的學生而言,音高不准的根本原因在於平時練琴時沒有用耳去仔細地辨別自己拉奏出來的音是否正確,對那些沒拉準的音沒做糾正,聽之任之。聽覺沒有起到應有的指導、監督作用。這樣時間長了,對沒拉準的音也就習慣了。還會誤以為自己拉出來的音就是正確的,從而使得音不准的毛病始終得不到改正。   正確的做法是:每天練琴時,都要用聽覺檢查音準,遇到不准的音要及時糾正,不放它過去。       事實證明,平時糾正音準的工作做得越好,正式演奏時一次性按準音的把握性就越大。在音高的調整上,要勇於放棄手指按弦時的錯誤位置,勤於去尋找最準確的位置。千萬不要認為第一次所按的位置就一定是準確的。如果對某個音的音准在聽覺上沒有把握,就要反复練習,反復對比,反複調整,直到把這個音拉準為止。這樣做不僅能夠糾正音準,獲得一次性把音按準的手指感覺,而且還能使聽覺變得敏銳起來。而敏銳的聽覺反過來又能幫助我們更加迅速地糾正音準,從而形成音准上的良性循環。       聽覺不甚靈敏的學生就更要努力這麼做了。必要時,可請視唱練耳老師輔導,在聽覺上做一些專門的訓練,以提高聽覺能力。音拉準了以後,對正確的音在指板上的位置就會逐漸地熟悉起來。時間長了,就能做到一次性把音按準了,同時還能養成一個良好的音準習慣。而一旦良好的音準習慣養成了,想把音拉不准都不容易了。 3、建立正確的左手姿勢   要想在指板上迅速準確地按準音,除了運用聽覺外,建立和保持一個正確的手形很重要。著名的小提琴教育家加拉米安指出:“良好的音準主要是建立在由耳朵指導的觸指感覺上的。”他提出了“手的框子”和“雙接觸的原則”兩種有效的訓練方法。       所謂“手的框子”是指:在任何把位,左手的四個手指要盡量保持準確的一四指之間的純四度關係;演奏雙音時,則要盡量保持準確的一四指之間的純八度關係。它的目的在於通過穩定一指和四指,從而找到二三指的準確位置。 “雙接觸的原則”是指:除了手指按弦以外,在低把位時,左手的拇指和食指的邊側在放鬆的狀態下輕觸琴頸的兩邊;在四把位以上時,食指側邊離開琴頸,拇指和手的不同位置接觸琴身,堅持同時有兩點接觸提琴。   它的目的在於,建立左手在提琴各把位的手感;保證手指按弦的力量。在這種練習中,一定要注意拇指與手的不同部位的放鬆,切忌不可讓這兩點相互用力,也就是通常我們常說的“不要把琴捏死!”     4、重視視唱練耳的學習   很多老師讓初學者在琴頸上作出手指準確按弦的位置標記,以此來代替還沒有形成的聽覺概念。但是,物極必反,初學者通過這種標記練習,雖然掌握了正確的左手姿勢,卻對琴頸上的標記產生了依賴。一但撤除標記,或者換了一把提琴讓他們演奏的話,手型看似正確,然而音準的問題依然不會得到解決。這種問題的出現就是由於他們放棄了耳朵的功能,也就是說,他們如同是聾耳在拉琴,對琴的音高沒有任何反應。       我認為,‘提琴者的耳朵’就如同‘飛行員的眼睛’,一個飛行員要是眼睛出了問題,他就不可能駕駛飛機;同樣,一個小提琴演奏者要是耳朵出了問題,他就不可能拉好提琴!很多人認為,拉琴時耳朵分辨不出音準,是因為其不具備‘內心音樂聽覺’。所謂‘內心音樂聽覺’,《音樂百科詞典》解釋如下:“人們在內心裡對某種聽過的或未聽過的音樂的回憶或想像。相對於聆聽實際音樂演奏而言。但內心音樂聽覺是在聆聽音樂的豐富經驗的基礎上形成。一般人都具備不同程度的內心音樂聽覺能力,經過有淺入深的訓練可逐步提高,有的人會獲得一定的發展。”由此可見,這時出現的音準問題,通過訓練是可以改善的。   出現如此問題與音樂的基礎學科——視唱練耳的訓練有直接的關係。為什麼說與視唱練耳的訓練有關呢?我國目前對於提琴初學者的教學方式主要分為:培訓班、少年宮、提琴小課等幾種,教學重點大多都放在了提琴的技術方面,而忽視了音樂的基礎學科的教育。在這種教學方式下,有很多提琴的初學者雖然學習了較長時間,但是卻不會唱譜,只會看著譜面上標記的指法、弓法拉琴。在他們的腦海裡,只知道每個音符在幾弦幾把,卻不知道這個音唱什麼。       在這種情況下,讓他去判斷音的準確問題顯然是不可能的。如何來解決這個問題呢?除了參加視唱練耳的基礎學習之外,在練習提琴的同時也可以有針對的訓練。對於小提琴愛好者來說,首先要明確的一點是,學習和練習提琴的目的不在於提高手指的技術能力,而是在於學習和感受音樂。       提琴只是表現音樂的一種工具,最終所感動人心的是音樂。音樂——我們可以通俗的理解為:讓人快樂的聲音就是音樂!那麼,就先要認識音,也就是唱譜。從此以後養成一個良好的習慣——只要開始拉琴,內心就要唱譜;譜唱的多了,內心就會構成一種抽象的音符形象,每一個音在內心都會有一個固定的位置,當你所演奏的音沒有達到這個位置時,耳朵所聽到的音高並沒有和內心提前估計的這個音高的抽象位置所重疊——或高於這個抽象位置,或低於這個抽象位置,練習者也就可以判斷出這個音是否準確了。這種能力,我們就把它稱為‘內心音樂聽覺’。因此,視唱練耳的訓練對於提琴學習者來說,具有無比的重要性。 5、正確的揉弦是音準的關鍵。   通過上述三個方面的練習,可以解決初級提琴演奏中的基本音準問題。但是,在學習和基本掌握了揉弦技術後,有些演奏者在揉弦時會出現音準不穩定甚至一揉弦音就偏高的問題。       一般揉弦分為三種:手腕揉弦;手臂揉弦;手指揉弦,這三種揉弦的方法和所獲得的音效都不盡相同。手腕揉弦,依靠手腕的晃動帶動手指關節;手臂揉弦,依靠手臂的晃動帶動手指關節;手指揉弦,依靠手指關節顫動。   三種揉弦最終都是需要手指關節的顫動來完成,不同處在於三種揉弦方式所獲得的音色不同。許多人在使用揉弦後,容易不考慮音樂整體表現的需要,只想要聲音一個個的美而不是合理的一句句的美,這樣就一味地猛揉弦,不考慮右手方面的技巧或是考慮不周,這樣非但不能發出好的聲音反之使右手的缺點掩蓋起來或是產生缺點,必須認真考慮右手的一切技巧,合理地運用弓速,弓壓,冷靜考慮什麼樣的弓速、弓壓應該加進什麼樣的揉弦才能獲得良好的音響。       在揉弦時所產生的音準問題,經過自身的學習和教學,我認為主要在於以下幾個方面:一是手指關節的運動方向,很多初學者在剛開始練習揉弦時不注意指關節的先向哪個方向揉,正確的方法是,手指按在準確的音準位置,指關節先向琴頭方向動,使手指的第一關節由立變平。       假如首先向琴碼方向啟動的話,就會造成揉音越來越高的問題。二是揉弦的啟動方向正確,但是手指關節晃動過快過大,就會產生揉弦音準不穩定的問題,注意揉弦的速度和幅度,就可以解決這個問題了。三是手指按弦緊張,造成手指關節過硬也會造成音準不穩定的問題。四、左手姿勢不能使用“雙接觸的原則”,依靠左手拇指一個指點就可以了,否則會影響到揉弦的方向和速度,以及指關節的放鬆度,從而影響到揉弦的音準。       音樂就是思想著的聲音。 Music is the sound of thinking. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________       1. Practicing scales is the basis for fixing intonation.   We say that we should practice scales every day, and the purpose is to get every note right. For most violin lovers and beginners, what they like to practice and play the most are those touching and perfect melodies, and the least like to practice is probably the dull scales.       In fact, insisting on practicing scales is the easiest and most direct way to establish and consolidate the abstract position of the inner pitch. In many cases, stepped or partial occurrences of scales can appear as melody in violin pieces. In all violin works, those brilliant fast passages and difficult cadenzas are combinations of various scales.       At the same time, the scale can also establish the frame of the hand and better establish the touch of the fingers. The great violinist Heifetz said: "The basis of violin playing technique is scale, which is the most important aspect of violin playing technique." It can be seen that practicing scales, as the most important basic practice for violin players, must be done Daily practice and serious treatment will be of great help in solving all aspects of the violin, especially the intonation problem. Below I take the specific method of practicing monophonic scales as an example:   When we practice a single scale, we must first figure out what key it is, which is relatively mentally retarded, but it must be paid attention to. The first note at the beginning of each series of scales must be extremely precise. Otherwise, pulling and pulling all the sounds will not be in their proper positions.       It is often a joke: after playing a G major scale, the last note and the G string are matched, and you will find that there is a big difference. (Have friends who have played the violin ever had such an experience? )       This is that when we play the piano, the sound is gradually inaccurate. Gradually, all the notes deviate from the normal track, but our ears can't feel it. Therefore, when we play a series of scales, we need to be accurate except for the first one. When the note is drawn, when you pull the same note as the open string, you must subconsciously match the open string. (In fact, not only the note that is the same as the open string has a reference tone, but all other notes can pass 5 degrees, 3 degrees and 6 degrees to adjust your own intonation)       In a string of notes, all the notes that can correspond to the empty strings are all accurate, and our framework for the pitch of this string of notes has a guarantee, at least the above problems will not appear again~ Every practice At the same time, the sound of each note must be very accurate, and our ears must supervise our hands, otherwise, the mistake will be repeated 100 times, and it will never be correct!   2. Use hearing to guide pitch   For students who have no problems with hearing, the fundamental reason for the inaccurate pitch is that they do not use their ears to carefully identify whether the tones they are playing are correct or not when they practice the piano, and they do not correct those inaccurate tones and just let it go. Hearing did not play the role of guidance and supervision. After a long time like this, you will get used to the sound that is not drawn correctly. They will also mistakenly think that the sound they pull out is correct, so that the inaccurate sound can never be corrected.   The correct way is: when practicing the piano every day, you should use your hearing to check the intonation. If you encounter an inaccurate tone, you should correct it in time, and don't let it go.       Facts have proved that the better the work of correcting the pitch is done, the greater the assurance that the pitch is pressed at one time when the official performance is performed. In pitch adjustment, we must have the courage to give up the wrong position of the fingers when pressing the strings, and be diligent in finding the most accurate position. Don't assume that the position you press the first time must be accurate. If you are not sure about the pitch of a certain sound, you must practice repeatedly, compare and adjust repeatedly, until you get the sound right. Doing so not only corrects the pitch and gets the finger-feel of getting the pitch right at once, but also sharpens the hearing. And sharp hearing, in turn, helps us correct pitch more quickly, creating a virtuous cycle of pitch.       Students with less sensitive hearing will have to work harder to do so. If necessary, you can ask a solfeggio teacher for guidance and do some special training in hearing to improve your hearing ability. Once the pitch is in place, you will gradually become familiar with the correct position of the pitch on the fretboard. After a long time, you will be able to press the pitch at one time, and at the same time, you can develop a good pitch habit. And once a good habit of intonation is formed, it is not easy to keep the pitch inaccurate. 3. Establish correct left hand posture   In addition to using your hearing, it is important to establish and maintain a correct hand shape for quick and accurate intonation on the fretboard. The famous violin educator Galamian pointed out: "Good intonation is mainly based on the feeling of the touch finger guided by the ear." He proposed two effective trainings, "the frame of the hand" and the "principle of double contact". method.       The so-called "frame of the hand" refers to: in any position, the four fingers of the left hand should try to maintain an accurate pure fourth relationship between one and four fingers; when playing two tones, try to maintain an accurate one to four fingers. pure octave relationship. Its purpose is to find the exact position of the second and third fingers by stabilizing the first and fourth fingers. The "principle of double contact" means: in addition to finger pressing, in the low position, the sides of the thumb and index finger of the left hand touch both sides of the neck in a relaxed state; in the fourth position or above, the forefinger side With the edge off the neck, different positions of the thumb and hand touch the body, insisting that there are two points touching the violin at the same time.   Its purpose is to establish the feel of the left hand in each position of the violin; to ensure the strength of the fingers to press the strings. In this exercise, we must pay attention to the relaxation of different parts of the thumb and hand, and do not let these two points force each other, which is usually what we often say "don't pinch the piano!"     4. Pay attention to the learning of solfeggio   Many teachers ask beginners to mark the exact position of their fingers on the neck to replace the not yet formed auditory concept. However, extremes fail. Through this kind of marking practice, although beginners have mastered the correct left-hand posture, they have become dependent on the markings on the neck. Once the markers are removed, or if they play a different violin, the hand shape seems correct, but the intonation problem still won't be solved. This problem arises because they have given up the function of their ears, that is, they are playing the violin as if they were deaf and have no response to the pitch of the violin.       In my opinion, 'the violinist's ear' is like 'the pilot's eyes', a pilot who has a problem with his eyes cannot fly a plane; similarly, a violin player who has a problem with his ears cannot play well Violin! Many people think that the ear cannot distinguish intonation when playing the violin because it does not have 'inner musical hearing'. The so-called 'inner musical hearing', "Music Encyclopedia" explains as follows: "People's inner memory or imagination of some kind of heard or unheard music. Compared with listening to the actual music performance. But inner musical hearing It is formed on the basis of the rich experience of listening to music. Most people have different levels of inner music hearing ability, which can be gradually improved after shallow to deep training, and some people will achieve certain development.” It can be seen that at this time, The intonation problem that occurs can be improved through training.   The occurrence of such a problem is directly related to the basic subject of music – the training of solfeggio. Why is it related to the training of solfeggio? At present, the teaching methods for violin beginners in my country are mainly divided into: training classes, children's palaces, and small violin lessons. Most of the teaching focuses are on the technical aspects of the violin, while The education of the fundamental disciplines of music is neglected. Under this teaching method, there are many violin beginners who have studied for a long time, but do not know how to sing notation, but only look at the fingerings and bows marked on the notation. In their minds, they only know how many strings each note is on, but they don't know what the note sings.       In this case, it is obviously impossible for him to judge the accuracy of the sound. How to solve this problem? In addition to participating in the basic learning of solfeggio, you can also have targeted training while practicing the violin. For violin lovers, the first thing to be clear is that the purpose of learning and practicing the violin is not to improve the technical ability of the fingers, but to learn and feel the music.       The violin is just a tool for expressing music, and it is music that moves people in the end. Music – we can understand it in a popular way: the sound that makes people happy is music! Then, we must first understand the sound, that is, singing. From then on, develop a good habit – as long as you start to play the piano, you must sing in your heart; if you sing a lot, your heart will form an abstract image of notes, and each note will have a fixed position in your heart. When the note you play does not reach this position, the pitch heard by the ear does not overlap with the abstract position of the pitch estimated in advance by the heart – or above this abstract position, or below this abstract position, Practitioners can also judge whether the sound is accurate. We call this ability 'inner musical hearing'. Therefore, the training of solfeggio is extremely important for violin learners. 5. Correct vibrato is the key to intonation.   The basic intonation problem in primary violin performance can be solved by practicing the above three aspects. However, after learning and basically mastering the vibrato technique, some players will have the problem of unstable intonation or even a high pitch when vibrating the vibrato.       Generally, there are three types of vibrato: wrist vibrato; arm vibrato; finger vibrato. These three vibrato methods and sound effects are not the same. Wrist kneading, relying on the shaking of the wrist to drive the finger joints; arm kneading, relying on the shaking of the arm to drive the finger joints; finger kneading, relying on the finger joints to vibrate.   The three kinds of vibrato are ultimately completed by the vibration of the finger joints, and the difference lies in the different timbres obtained by the three vibrato methods. After using the vibrato, many people tend not to consider the needs of the overall performance of the music, and just want the beauty of each sound rather than the beauty of a reasonable sentence, so they just rub the vibrato blindly, without considering the skills of the right hand or whether or not Zhou, this will not only fail to make a good sound, but will cover up the shortcomings of the right hand or create shortcomings. You must seriously consider all the skills of the right hand, use the bow speed and bow pressure reasonably, and calmly consider what kind of bow speed and bow pressure should be increased. What kind of vibrato is used to get a good sound.       After my own study and teaching, I think the problem of intonation caused by kneading is mainly in the following aspects: First, the movement direction of finger joints. Many beginners do not pay attention to which finger joints go first when they first practice kneading. The correct way to knead in the direction is to press the fingers at the exact pitch position, and move the knuckles towards the headstock first, so that the first joints of the fingers are flattened from vertical.       If it is started in the direction of the bridge first, it will cause the problem of higher and higher rubbing. The second is that the starting direction of the vibrato is correct, but if the finger joints shake too fast and too large, the vibrating intonation will be unstable. Pay attention to the speed and amplitude of the vibrato, and this problem can be solved. The third is that the fingers are tense when pressing the strings, causing the finger joints to be too hard, which will also cause the problem of intonation instability. 4. The "double contact principle" cannot be used in the left-hand posture. It is enough to rely on one pointing of the left thumb, otherwise it will affect the direction and speed of the vibrato, as well as the relaxation of the knuckles, thus affecting the pitch of the vibrato.   音樂就是思想著的聲音。 Music is the sound of thinking.  

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2022-05-21

「小提琴」關於英皇考級,你必須要知道的8件事 | 「violin」8 things you must know about the ABRSM

英皇考級被稱為國際化的考級,越來越多老師和學生紛紛積極報考,讓我們一起來了解一下英皇考級   1. 英皇考級到底是什麼? “英皇考級”其實是個不准確的簡稱,容易誤以為是英國皇室或英國皇家音樂學院的考級。其全名The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music,於1889年由皇家音樂學院( Royal Academy of Music) 校長 Alexander MacKenzie 爵士和皇家音樂學校( Royal College of Music) 主任George Grove 爵士共同創建。 其成員是英國的四家音樂院校:英國皇家音樂學院(Royal Academy of Music)、皇家音樂學校(Royal College of Music)、英國皇家北方音樂學院(Royal Northern College of Music)和蘇格蘭皇家音樂戲劇學院(Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama),總裁是威爾士王子——即後來的英皇愛德華七世。     因此,英皇考級其實是一個聯合體,最初僅被命名為“聯合委員會”,現在的正式中文譯名是:英國皇家音樂學院聯合委員會(ABRSM)。   2. 英皇考級證書長什麼樣? 下圖這個是學生證書的掃描件,分別是證書封皮和演奏及樂理評分錶,為保護學生隱私已打碼姓名。 演奏考級滿分為150分,100分合格,達到130分以上即為優秀。證書裡包含了對樂曲,音階,視奏,聽力考試的打分及手寫評語。 樂理考級滿分為100分,66分合格,90分以上即為優秀。證書因有中文翻譯就不再詳細介紹。   3. 英皇考級考什麼? 英皇考級(ABRSM)的考試分為演奏(包含樂曲,音階,視奏,聽力)和樂理(筆試)兩大塊,它們的最高級別都是8級。而實際上,英皇考級還設有文憑類考試,它們是 DipABRSM (初級文憑),LRSM(高級文憑),FRSM (院士文憑),文憑有三種,分別是教學,演奏和指揮。這是非常專業的考試,只有取得8級證書的人才能申考文憑類考試。     4. 參加英皇考級試需要具備什麼條件? 這是經常被提及的問題,其潛台詞是英皇考級考級難不難? 首先給出官方答案,參加英皇考級的考生不分國籍、年齡和音樂學習背景,每個人可根據自己不同的情況選擇適合自己的考試項目。再給出個人真誠的回答,需要一個好老師,需要一個能堅持的家長或能堅持的學生,那就夠了。   5. 我通過了其他考級5級,應報考英皇幾級? 這是另一個常被提及的問題,其潛台詞是把其他考級體系和英皇考級體系進行同質轉換。遺憾的是此問題無解。由於眾所周知的原因,一般演奏考級普遍不設置視奏以及聽力測試,而這兩項是考生難以通過大量機械化訓練依靠聽覺模仿和肌肉記憶去突擊的,所以英皇考試雖然允許跳級,但其實很克“速成”類考生。   6. 英皇系統教學 VS 傳統鋼琴教學 英皇考級系統的教學和傳統鋼琴教學有什麼區別?摸著藝術良心說,本來它們應該沒有任何區別,只要是學古典音樂和鋼琴,就應該學習基礎的樂理與和聲知識,就應該紮實學好基本功,就不應該學了數年音樂離開老師卻什麼都不會,也聽不懂交響樂和室內樂。鋼琴,尤其是古典鋼琴,不是一個變相的“打地鼠”鍵盤遊戲,在正確的時間擊打正確的鍵的遊戲,若只有這點要求,那機器人早已替代鋼琴家。學生需要控制音質穩定,解構作品又需要音色多變,這不是“彈對”就行的。   學習古典鋼琴,從來就是一個漫長的艱苦的過程,受限於學生的耳朵發育和手指機能,是不可能“速成”的。速成型學生通過了國內十級,但在音樂素養上是“白丁”。只會彈有限的幾首樂曲,且往往就是考級規定的那幾首,通常也說不出它們是什麼時期的作品,其風格及結構,創作背景,和對作品的理解更無頭緒。有些學生甚至連作品的體裁及作者都不知道。 所以英皇考級的聽力視奏和樂理設置倒逼著教學上必須按音樂教育本來的規律來辦。這也就是筆者所說的,“本應沒有區別”。   7. 英皇考級演奏考試的評分標準? 英皇考級的演奏是如何打分的?官方的五個標準是:音準 Pitch,時值 Time,音色 Tone,形態 Shape,表演 Performance。特別需要說明的是,這五項標準的字面含義應以英文原文為準。 音色 不是指鋼琴聲學品質的好壞,而是針對作品的和聲色彩及情緒表達等多方面考量下做出的鋼琴觸鍵的變化及其所帶來的聲音反饋。 形態 不是指學生的身體動作,而是指對作品的樂句,聲部,結構等多方面的詮釋,是音樂的“形狀”。 表演 指的不光是學生的舞台表現,更指對作品時期風格的詮釋。     舉個例子,某位考生在英皇考級高級別考試中,將巴赫和肖邦這兩位相隔百年作曲家的音樂彈得沒有區別,即對標ABRSM的評分標準中的音色Tone,形態Shape,表演Performance三項,那麼即使音準和時值都對,也就是筆者前文所寫的變相“打地鼠”準確率100%,也是不會得到考官認可的。   8. ABRSM證書的含金量?   可能是最被關心的證書含金量問題,也就是留學加分和獎學金的申請問題,如果將來有留學計劃,英皇考級的證書具備在英聯邦(及部分非英聯邦的西方國家,如美國/法國/德國)國家,業餘音樂考級證書中幾乎全球最高的效力和信譽。英聯邦國家的大學錄取加分會高達120分,英屬體系外的國家相對較少。具體加分或申請獎學金政策因國家(或地區)和學校不同而各有差異,拿英國本土舉例,請參考下表。       需要注意的是,英皇考級達到六級以上才能提出申請。分數的好壞也是參考標準,一個高級別的低分(比如八級105分),給錄取方的印象,未必好過一個相對低級別的高分(比如七級135分)。             音樂就是思想著的聲音。 Music is the sound of thinking. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   The Emperor's Grading Exam is known as an international exam. More and more domestic teachers and students are actively applying for the exam. Let's take a look at the Emperor's Grading Exam.   1. What exactly is the Royal Examination? "Emperor's Examination" is actually an inaccurate abbreviation, and it is easy to mistake it for the examination of the British Royal Family or the Royal Academy of Music. Its full name, The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, was founded in 1889 by Sir Alexander MacKenzie, Principal of the Royal Academy of Music, and Sir George Grove, Director of the Royal College of Music. Its members are four music schools in the UK: the Royal Academy of Music, the Royal College of Music, the Royal Northern College of Music and the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama (Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama), the president is the Prince of Wales – the future King Edward VII.   Therefore, the Imperial Examination is actually a consortium, which was originally named only "Joint Committee", and now the official Chinese translation name is: British Royal Academy of Music Joint Committee (ABRSM).   2. What does the King's Examination Certificate look like? The picture below is a scanned copy of the student certificate, which is the certificate cover and performance and music theory score sheets. The names have been coded to protect the privacy of students. The full score of the performance test is 150 points, 100 points are qualified, and 130 points or more are excellent. The certificate includes scores and handwritten comments on music, scales, sight-reading, and listening tests. The full score of the music theory test is 100 points, 66 points are qualified, and 90 points or more are excellent. The certificate will not be introduced in detail because of the Chinese translation.   3. What is the Imperial Examination? The ABRSM test is divided into two parts: performance (including music, scales, sight-reading, listening) and music theory (written test), and the highest level of them is 8. In fact, there are also diploma exams in the King's Examination, which are DipABRSM (primary diploma), LRSM (advanced diploma), FRSM (academician diploma). There are three kinds of diplomas, namely teaching, performance and conducting. This is a very professional exam and only those with a Level 8 certificate can apply for the Diploma exam.     4. What are the requirements for taking the King's Examination? This is a question that is often mentioned. The official answer is given first. Candidates who take the Emperor's examination are not divided into nationalities, ages and music learning backgrounds. Everyone can choose the examination items that suit their own circumstances. To give a personal and sincere answer, you need a good teacher, a persevering parent or persevering student, and that’s enough.     5. I passed level 5 of the domestic examination. What level should I apply for? This is another frequently mentioned issue, and its subtext is to homogeneously convert the domestic grading system and the Emperor's grading system. Unfortunately this problem is unsolved. Due to well-known reasons, sight-reading and listening tests are generally not set in domestic performance examinations, and these two are difficult for candidates to rely on auditory imitation and muscle memory to attack through a large number of mechanized training. Therefore, although the emperor's examination allows skipping grades, it is actually very difficult. "Quick" class candidates.   6. Emperor System Teaching VS Domestic Piano Teaching What is the difference between the teaching of the Emperor's Grading System and the domestic piano teaching? Touching the artistic conscience, I said that there should be no difference between them. As long as you are studying classical music and piano, you should learn basic music theory and harmony knowledge, and you should learn the basic skills solidly. Neither can nor understand symphony and chamber music. The piano, especially the classical piano, is not a disguised "whack-a-mole" keyboard game, a game of hitting the right keys at the right time. If that was the only requirement, the robot would have already replaced the pianist. Students need to control the sound quality to be stable, and deconstruction works need to change the sound quality. This is not just "playing right".   Learning classical piano has always been a long and arduous process, limited by the students' ear development and finger function, it is impossible to "quick". The instant students passed the domestic tenth grade, but they were "white Ding" in terms of musical literacy. He can only play a limited number of pieces, and they are often the ones specified in the grading test. Usually, it is impossible to tell what period they are works, their style and structure, their creative background, and their understanding of the works. Some students don't even know the genre and author of the work. Therefore, the listening sight-reading and music theory settings of the Emperor's Grade Examination force the teaching to be done according to the original rules of music education. This is what the author said, "there should be no difference".   7. What is the grading standard for the King's Graded Performance Test? How is the performance of the King's Examination graded? The five official standards are: Pitch, Time, Tone, Shape, and Performance. It should be noted that the literal meaning of these five standards should be based on the original English text. Timbre does not refer to the quality of the piano's acoustics, but the changes in the touch of the piano keys and the sound feedback brought by them under the consideration of the harmony color and emotional expression of the work. Form does not refer to the physical movements of students, but refers to the interpretation of various aspects such as phrases, parts, and structure of the work, which is the "shape" of music. Performance refers not only to the students' stage performance, but also to the interpretation of the style of the work period.     For example, a candidate played the music of Bach and Chopin, two composers separated by hundreds of years, in the high-level examination of the King's Examination, that is, the Tone, Shape, and Performance in the ABRSM scoring standard. Three items, then even if the pitch and timing are correct, that is, the accuracy rate of the disguised "whack-a-mole" written by the author is 100%, it will not be recognized by the examiner.   8. What is the gold content of the ABRSM certificate?   It may be the most concerned about the gold content of the certificate, that is, the application of extra points and scholarships for studying abroad. If there is a study abroad plan in the future, the certificate of the Emperor's examination will be available in the Commonwealth (and some non-Commonwealth Western countries, such as the United States/France/ Germany) national, amateur music examination certificate in almost the world's highest potency and credibility. Universities in the Commonwealth of Nations have a bonus of 120 points, and there are relatively few countries outside the British system. The specific bonus points or scholarship application policies vary by country (or region) and school. Take the UK as an example, please refer to the table below. It should be noted that the application can only be submitted if the Emperor's Examination has reached Level 6 or above. The quality of the score is also a reference standard. A high-level low score (such as 105 points in the eighth level) may not give the admissions better impression than a relatively low-level high score (such as 135 points in the seventh level).   音樂就是思想著的聲音。 Music is the sound of thinking.

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2022-05-14

透過音樂提升認知功能的 7 種方法

  是純屬巧合還是懂樂器的人真的比較聰明?   研究發現,具有音樂背景的人往往都會具有比較高水平的認知功能。   事實上,接受過一到五年音樂訓練的孩子比沒有接受過音樂訓練的孩子記住的詞彙量要多出 20%。   所以,今天我們就來聊聊學習音樂能如何幫助你提高認知技能的 7 種方法。   1.促進創造力     創造力在今日的社會已是一個不可多得的技能。而音樂可能是培養創造力最有效的方式。   當你在演奏樂器的時候,你正在呈現一個與眾不同的自己。此刻的你也具有透過聲音來創造並表達情感的能力。   演奏音樂就是你探索和發現自己的一種方式,就像畫家一樣,通過繪畫表達他的感受和情緒。   2.培養熱誠     能夠華麗的演奏並對樂器達到一定程度的掌握能給你帶來很大的滿足感。   這會產生一種目標感,並培養出你對覺得有意義的事情的熱誠。   對表演的熱誠、分享音樂的熱誠以及與其他音樂家交流的熱誠。   擁有熱誠是一種可以轉移到你生活其他方面的力量,讓你更懂得去追求充實生活的事物。   3.提高專注力     音樂訓練可以幫助你提高專注於手頭任務的能力,讓你學會在更短的時間內完成更多工作。   你可能已經猜到,練習是需要專注力的。而當你專注在練習和磨練你的演奏技能的同時,你也正在默默的提高你的認知技能,例如:   當你學習一首新歌或一項新技巧時,你必須能夠專注於你正在做的事情,保持注意力。這有助於培養即使在任務變得困難或令人沮喪時也能專注於任務的能力。   演奏樂器可以提高認知功能,例如記憶力、注意力跨度和解決問題的能力。   學習樂器也能增加你對節奏和旋律以及音符與節拍的關係,這有助於培養聆聽音樂規律的能力,以及在根據舊作品創作新作品時提前思考的能力。   4.增加智力     學習音樂有助於開發大腦的兩側,因為它需要同時運用到左右腦來處理信息。   因此,有助於提高你的智力。   但是對於一個人來說,聰明意味著什麼?   智能的定義可以意味著兩件事:   學習和應用新信息的能力,   以合乎邏輯的方式解決問題並做出正確決策的能力,   研究顯示,學習樂器也可以提高你的口頭記憶和語音處理能力。   這意味著當你學習如何演奏樂器時,你的大腦將開始產生變化,開始與學習之前的運作不同。     5.提高考試成績     在美國心理學會發表的一項研究中,上音樂課的學生在所有科目的考試成績都高於非音樂同齡人。   研究人員得出結論,音樂訓練“提供了豐富的認知優勢,可能有助於提高學業成績”——而且這些影響會持續到成年。   6.增強記憶     也許學習樂器最顯著的好處是它可以幫助你增強記憶力。   雖然每個人的大腦都不完全相同,但演奏樂器絕對可以在增強記憶力和注意力這方面提供改善。   由於它對大腦可塑性的影響—海馬體。   海馬體中增加的神經細胞可以讓你的記憶力提高。   這在兒童發展的早期階段尤其重要,隨著時間的推移,它會隨著反复的刺激而加強。   7.提高時間管理技能     學習樂器可以教會孩子設定目標並朝著這些目標努力。   這有助於培養自律性,讓孩子們知道如何最好地利用課餘時間(甚至在課餘時間!)。   使他們能夠計劃和管理他們花在學習如何演奏樂器上的時間。   總結,你無需有專業音樂家的水平才會從演奏樂器中受益!你所需要的只是對自我提升的熱誠和一個能幫助你實現目標的計畫與課程。   我希望以上資訊對你在追求充實自己的旅程有所幫助。   Rock On nn/。  

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2022-05-14

7 Ways How Learning Music Improves Your Cognitive Skills

  Is it just a coincidence or does playing a musical instrument really make you more intelligent?   Studies have shown that people with a musical background tend to have higher levels of cognitive function.   In fact, children with one to five years of musical training were able to remember 20% more vocabulary words read to them off a list than children without such training.   So today we’ll be looking at 7 ways how learning music can help improve your cognitive skills.   1.Promote Creativity     Creativity is a critical skill in today's world. And music may be the single most efficient way to cultivate creativity.   When you're playing on a music instrument, you are expressing an aspect of yourself that is unique from that of others. You have the power to create something new and express your emotions through sound.   Playing music is a way for you to explore and discover who you are. As a painter would, expressing his or her feelings and emotions through painting.   2.Develop Passion     There is a joy in being able to play something and achieve a certain level of mastery in a musical instrument.   This creates a sense of purpose and develops a passion over something that is meaningful to you.   A passion to perform, to share music, and to connect with other musicians.   And this passion driven force can transfer into other facets of your life, giving you the opportunity to enjoy a more fulfilling life.   3.Improves Focus     Musical training can help you improve your ability to focus on the task at hand and allows you to do more, in less time.   As you may have guessed it, practice requires focus. And as you practice and hone your skills, you also improve your cognitive skills at the same time, for example:   When you learn a new song or a new technique, you must be able to concentrate on what you are doing and not lose focus. This helps develop the ability to stay focused on a task even when it becomes difficult or frustrating.   Playing a musical instrument improves cognitive functions like memory, attention span and problem solving abilities.   It also increases understanding of time relationships between notes in both rhythmic and melodic directions, which helps develop the ability to hear patterns in music as well as think ahead when creating new pieces based off old ones.   4.Increased Intelligence     Learning music helps to develop both sides of the brain, as it requires processing of information by both hemispheres of your brain.   Thus, helps improve your intelligence.   But what does it mean for a person to be intelligent?   When you look at the definition of intelligence, it can mean two things:   The ability to learn new information and apply it,   The ability to solve problems in a logical way and make good decisions,   Research has shown that learning a musical instrument can improve your verbal memory and speech processing.   This means that when you learn how to play a musical instrument, your brain begins functioning differently than before you started learning.   5.Improve Test Scores     In a study published by the American Psychological Association, students who took music lessons had higher exam scores across all subjects than their non-musical peers.   The researchers concluded that music training “offers a rich range of cognitive advantages that may help boost academic performance”—and that these effects lasted into adulthood.   6.Better Memory     Perhaps the most notable benefits of learning a musical instrument is that it helps you to improve your memory.   While no two brains are alike, playing a musical instrument can definitely rip rewards in terms of boosting your memory and attention span.   Thanks to its effect on brain plasticity— Hippocampus.   The increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus allows production of new neurons to take place, and in return improves your memory.   This is especially important in the early stages of childhood development, and over time it strengthens with repeated stimulation.   7.Improved Time Management Skills     Learning a musical instrument can teach children to set goals and work towards them.   This helps develop self-discipline so that children know how to best use their free time outside of school hours (or even during school hours!).   Enabling them to plan for and manage their time spent learning how to play the instrument.   In conclusion, you don't have to be at a professional level to start benefiting from playing a musical instrument! All you need is a passion for self improvement and a course to help you achieve your goals.   I hope the above information was useful in your pursue of enriching yourself each and everyday.     Rock On nn/.  

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2022-05-14

「小提琴」你不可不知的小提琴左手按指的八條原則.本期带来小提琴youtube視頻教學《茉莉花》 | 「violin」Eight principles of fingering on the left hand of the violin that you must know,and this issue attach violin trial teaching <Jasmine Flower>

演奏小提琴,無論什麼弓法,發音須乾淨利落而且音與音應該清晰可辨。尤其快速演奏更不能拖泥帶水。做不到這點,左手可能有問題。   為提高左手的技能,應注重以下幾條左手原則。用這些原則檢查練琴,從方法論上指導學琴。每人具體情況各有所異,望我的這些觀點、方法,對琴友有所幫助。   1、保留指原則:保留指在演奏中對音準、手型、弱指的助動、動作簡潔演奏方便等都是重要的。初學就應重視保留指原則。       2、手型,指型掌型調整原則:由於在把位上每一個按指都可以有三個不同的音位,當你接觸到這些音位時,手型、指型、掌型,也應當有所不同。不可千篇一律,自找苦吃。       3、同指不同位指不保留原則:這條應在同指前後音有變化時運用,即指同,音不同。在旋律進行中,當同一按指前後音位不同,我們演奏完這個音後,必須立即抬起這一指,以便準備隨後再次按下這個指,因為雖然指同,但前後卻是兩個不同的音位,故不得保留,否則會造成疏忽。或音不准,兩音不清,演奏遲緩。     4、抬指整體聯動原則:保留指的上抬,有時是單一的,有時是多指的。當音符上行後有小的回跳若全部不保留,能減少混亂。但更有效的方法是:運用保留指抬起整體聯動動作。即某一按指上抬時低位保留其中一個,或幾個同時一併抬起。抬指有力果斷整體聯動,不得有先後時差。開塞練習曲 NO.15,中間的分弓段落。就是整篇的抬指整體聯動練習。通常一些快速旋律演奏的絆絆磕磕,就是對這類練習重視不夠,技能不過關所至。     5、兩部分接觸調節原則:這一點很重要。即左手與琴的接觸點,始終保持兩個部分,其餘若即若離。在拇指,食指根,按弦指尖,左掌幾者間進行選擇。這種選擇是隨時的,自如的,不可強行幾部分用力接觸,也不可一點接觸,或零接觸。       兩點接觸的左手,更自如、靈活,更適應各種調要求。關於兩點接觸有必要說明如下:在拉稍快的音符進行時,似乎是三點接觸。按指的轉換,空弦音的間隔出現,都需要食指根或手的其他部位(高把位時)的配合,由於轉換太快,幾乎成為三接觸了。此類應該是皮膚表面的輕觸,我們應該將這種現象定義為特殊的兩點接觸。       我們不妨將此類旋律以較慢的速度演奏,兩點接觸就會表現的顯而易見。只有兩點接觸,按指才能做出細微的音色助動動作。部分初級學生在拇指食指根觸琴的基礎上,當個別按指按弦出現三點不平衡時,不知道這一原則,不知道調整。也有練習中一點接觸,結果跑了把位,走了音。         6、縱橫原則:所謂縱,就是伸展,緊縮指法,伸展要求保持把位。緊縮卻可以無把位。所謂橫,就是同指按雙弦,或按指在四根弦間平移。橫的要求在於,左肘的舵式動作。練就橫向準確不偏移,按指弦間能自如。         7、放鬆休息原則:放鬆都是相對的,完全的放鬆,什麼事也做不了。我們要利用演奏的瞬間,進行不同程度的放鬆。這樣才能使整個手始終處在靈活,機動的狀態。演奏中的放鬆,絕非練琴中的休息。它的意義遠遠大於休息。人常曰:不會休息,就不會工作,我說不會放鬆,就不會拉琴。     8、力量級別原則:這一點最能說明放鬆,具有可操作性,屢試不爽。左手各部分在各自動作中只有按弦指是首位力量級的。其餘大拇指、食指根、腕,掌應該明顯感覺在力量上是低級別的。我們應當明顯的感覺到按弦指肉墊力量遠遠大於手的其他部位。這一原則運用到右手,就是弓弦馬尾於弦的接觸點是首位力量級的,其他部位決不可超越。   本期我們要帶來經典曲目《茉莉花》的小提琴youtube詳細視頻教學 In this issue, we will bring a detailed violin teaching of the classic song "Jasmine"         音樂就是思想著的聲音。 Music is the sound of thinking. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________       When playing the violin, no matter what the bowing method, the pronunciation must be clean and clear and the tones and tones should be clearly distinguishable. Especially fast playing can not be sloppy. Failing this, there may be problems with the left hand.       To improve left-handed skills, the following left-handed principles should be paid attention to. Use these principles to check the piano practice and guide the piano learning methodologically. Everyone's specific situation is different, I hope these views and methods of mine will be helpful to the piano friends.     1. The principle of reserved fingers: The reserved fingers are important in the performance of pitch, hand shape, assisting the weak fingers, simple movements and convenient performance. Beginners should pay attention to the principle of reservation.       2. The principle of hand shape, finger shape and palm shape adjustment: Since each finger on the handle can have three different phonemes, when you come into contact with these phonemes, the hand shape, finger shape and palm shape should also be different. You can't be the same and find it hard to suffer.       3. The principle of not retaining the same finger in different positions: This should be used when the sound before and after the same finger changes, that is, the finger is the same, but the sound is different. When the melody is in progress, when the same finger is in different positions before and after, after we finish playing the note, we must immediately lift the finger in order to prepare to press the finger again, because although the finger is the same, the front and back are two different the phoneme, so it must not be reserved, otherwise it will cause negligence. Or the tone is inaccurate, the two tones are unclear, and the performance is slow.       4. The overall linkage principle of finger lift: the lift of the finger is reserved, sometimes it is single, sometimes it is multiple fingers. When a note goes up, there is a small bounce back, if not all, to reduce confusion. But a more effective method is to use the reserved fingers to lift the overall linkage action. That is, when a certain finger is lifted up, one of the low positions is reserved, or several are lifted simultaneously. Raising the fingers is powerful and decisive for the overall linkage, and there must be no time difference. Kaisai Etude NO.15, the middle part of the bow section. It is the whole joint exercise of raising the fingers. Usually, the stumbling and stumbling of some fast melody performances is that they do not pay enough attention to this kind of practice, and the skills are not enough.     5. Two-part contact regulation principle: This is very important. That is, the contact point between the left hand and the piano, always maintains two parts, and the rest are distant. Choose between the thumb, the base of the index finger, the tip of the finger, and the left palm. This choice is at any time and free, and it is not allowed to force several parts to contact with force, nor point contact, or zero contact.       The left hand, which is in contact with two points, is more comfortable and flexible, and is more suitable for various tuning requirements. It is necessary to say the following about the two-point contact: when the slightly faster note is played, it appears to be a three-point contact. According to the switching of the fingers, the interval of the open string sounds requires the cooperation of the root of the index finger or other parts of the hand (in the high position). Because the switching is too fast, it almost becomes three contacts. This class should be a light touch on the skin surface, and we should define this phenomenon as a special two-point contact.       We might as well play this kind of melody at a slower speed, and the two-point contact will be obvious. Only two points of contact, pressing the finger can make subtle timbre-assisting movements. On the basis of touching the piano with the base of the thumb and index finger, some junior students do not know this principle and do not know how to adjust when there is a three-point imbalance when pressing the strings with individual fingers. There is also a little contact in the practice, and the result is that the position is lost and the tone is lost.     6. The principle of vertical and horizontal: the so-called vertical is to stretch, tighten the fingering, and stretch to maintain the position. Austerity can be pointless. The so-called horizontal is to press the double strings with the same finger, or to move between the four strings by pressing the finger. The horizontal requirement is the rudder-like action of the left elbow. Practice the horizontal accuracy without shifting, and press the finger strings freely.         7. The principle of relaxation and rest: relaxation is relative, completely relaxed, and nothing can be done. We need to use the moment of performance to relax in varying degrees. In this way, the whole hand can always be in a flexible and maneuverable state. Relaxation in playing is by no means rest in piano practice. It means far more than rest. People often say: If you don't rest, you won't work. If you don't relax, you won't play the piano.     8. The principle of strength level: This point can best explain relaxation, maneuverability, and trial and error. In each part of the left hand, only the pressing finger is the first power level in their respective movements. The rest of the thumb, the base of the index finger, the wrist, and the palm should clearly feel a low level of strength. We should obviously feel that the force of the finger pads is much greater than that of other parts of the hand. This principle is applied to the right hand, that is, the contact point of the bowstring ponytail and the string is the first power level, and other parts must not be surpassed.

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2022-05-07

「小提琴」買了小提琴卻不會保養?一次性教你如何保養小提琴 | 「violin」Bought a violin but can't maintain it? One-time teach you how to maintain the violin

1.如何保持提琴的清潔?         保持提琴清潔的途徑很多,最重要的是不要讓松香粉、汗水及塵末等不潔的東西積聚在提琴上。松香主要積聚在琴弦、指板及琴馬周圍的面板上,而汗水與其它的灰塵大多是在琴肩、琴頸及琴側板近腮托周圍的地方積聚。松香粉如不清除,日久積聚加上氧化後便會變成漆黑一片。汗水如不及時清除,其含有的鹽份對提琴會起極壞的腐蝕作用。所以拉完琴後,在將琴放回琴盒之前,一定要用擦琴布輕輕地把松香灰及汗水擦掉。     現在市場上有很多不同品種的清潔劑及拋光劑,這種比較商業化的東西其實對小提琴意義不大。小提琴的油漆並不需要像鋼琴或吉他那樣平整及發光發亮。如果用拋光劑把一把名貴的古琴擦得閃閃發亮,反而可能影響了該琴的真正價值。在琴的指板上,因日久積聚的松香灰會跟窄氣中的水汽結合,而後凝結成一層黑泥,較難清洗。如果不想交給有經驗的修琴帥傅清理,則可嘗試用少量酒精來將它抹去。但是千萬要小心,別讓酒精碰到琴身的油漆,否則油漆被酒精溶解掉,麻煩就大了。現在可以買一款提琴專用的擦琴油,能對提琴起到很好的保養與清潔作用。   2.如何避免提琴的損壞?        好的提琴不光是一個使用工具,而且可以是一個古董,一個有很高投資價值的藝術品。所以,保護我們的樂器,讓它處於良好的健康狀態,是一個很值得重視的問題。            雖然拜現代科技及工藝進步之賜,提琴的修復技術日益完善,但是有些提琴損壞後的修復不但所費不貲,而且其本身價值也會大打折扣。例如提琴底部音柱部位破裂,雖經修復,其價值也會損失50%~60%。如面板的音柱或低音粱部位破裂,其價值的損失也在20%~40%左右。如是琴弓的弓頭斷裂,則其損失在80%以上。       我們應如何避免提琴的損壞呢?首先,每次使用完樂器之後要立刻把它放回一個質料堅固的琴盒裡面,並把琴盒蓋好。十有八九受嚴重損毀的提琴都是在琴盒外發生的。另外,提琴最好要自己攜帶,萬不得已才去交付給運輸公司,而且要選擇信譽良好的運輸公司,並由具專業知識的人員包裝打包。在運輸過程中受損的提琴大多是由於不良的包裝。有些人認為把提琴放在琴盒里便可交給運輸公司,那就大錯特錯了。因為一般的琴盒的設計標準並沒有堅固到足以應付運輸中的意外情況。所以即使把琴放在琴盒子里之後也還是要讓有包裝提琴運輸經驗的人士來包裝處理.交付託運。如是好琴.最好再買保險,以防萬一。琴不能暴晒,不能雨淋,不能放在烈日下暴晒的汽車行李箱裡。冬天在家裡開暖氣時要在提琴裡放一條潮濕管。一般地說,越名貴的古董提琴,越容易受損,越要多加小心。     3.提琴開膠及琴板破裂怎麼辦?       提琴是由很多不同的部件膠合起來的。制琴師在一開始製琴時就沒有要把琴做得牢不可破,這是因為日後還常常可能要把琴拆開調整。所以提琴意外地開裂,固然需要立刻修復,但也不是一個值得大驚小怪的問題。   提琴較容易開膠的地方,經常是在底面板的中縫、面板、底板與側板的膠合處、弦枕、尾枕、指板等處。其中除了底面板的中央拼縫與底側板之結合處需要比較堅固的膠合,其它的地方在膠合時就預計日後還要重新打開,剛此其膠合的牢固程度不需也不應太堅固。因天氣潮濕或演奏者於汗較多而造成的開膠,就如衣服掉鈕扣一樣,是時有發生的小事。   如果制琴者用較新的木材來做琴,或者膠合時煮膠、用膠不當也是造成提琴開膠的原因所在。由於提琴開膠會嚴重影響音色,並且在樂器震動時間能發出令人不快的噪音;所以當有這種情況發生時,雖不用驚慌,但也要盡快交給專家處理,把琴重新黏合好。     其實不少新琴因有裂縫而打開修理後,聲音變得更好的情況也是很普遍的。因為開裂的地方,往往就是琴體張力最大的地方在打開修復再合回原處之後,其張力減弱了,因此聲音也更圓潤了。琴板一有破裂,應盡快找有經驗的技師立刻修理。那新的裂縫經巧妙的修補後是幾乎看不出來的,而且也不會影響音色。       4.提琴弦軸的注意要點有哪些?     裝得好的弦軸(琴準)應該是旋轉自如的。一般地說,如果弦軸太緊.便應塗上一種專門用於調節弦軸潤滑與鬆緊度的軸蠟使它們容易旋轉。如弦軸打滑,第一步可先試用軸蠟;如果用了軸蠟還不行,可以再加上一些松香粉。假如這兩種辦法都不見效,就要查看弦軸的軸錐斜度是否完全與軸孔的斜度相吻合。查試的方法是:把弦軸輕輕塞進軸孔裡(不能用力擠壓進去),然後上下左右輕輕搖動;如果弦軸是完全吻合的,那就一點點都不會搖動。反之,則說明弦軸與軸孔的吻合度有問題。這時就應該將琴交給專業人員重新校正。一般來講,只要原本的軸孔不是太大,就算足換一套弦軸,或重新調整弦軸、軸孔的錐度都不是什麼複雜的大問題。如果弦軸、軸孔的錐度不對,或原來的軸孔已經偏大,那就要對軸孔進行填洞重新開孔。這樣的修理就較費時費事,修理費自然也可能貴一些。因此要注意,新琴的弦軸以不是太粗為宜。    另一值得注意的是:四個弦軸互相之間的角度要準確(特別是大提琴)。四根弦之間應有適當的空間而不會互相碰線摩擦。再者,琴頭的弦軸箱(匣)之底部也要有足夠的空間不會使琴弦擠壓在一起。如有以上兩種情況,都會造成琴弦的過早磨損與斷弦。在上弦的時候,每條弦的最後幾圈應該靠近弦槽的側壁。           音樂就是思想著的聲音。 Music is the sound of thinking. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   1. How to keep the violin clean?     There are many ways to keep the violin clean. The most important thing is not to let unclean things such as rosin powder, sweat and dust accumulate on the violin. Rosin mainly accumulates on the strings, fretboard, and tops around the bridge, while sweat and other dust mostly accumulate on the shoulders, neck, and sides near the chin rest. If the rosin powder is not removed, it will become dark after accumulation and oxidation. If the sweat is not removed in time, the salt it contains will have a very bad corrosive effect on the violin. So after playing the piano, be sure to gently wipe off the rosin ash and sweat with a piano cloth before putting the piano back in the case.     There are many different kinds of cleaners and polishes on the market today, and this kind of commercial thing is actually not very meaningful for the violin. A violin's paint doesn't need to be as smooth and shiny as a piano or guitar. Polishing an expensive guqin to sparkle may detract from its true value. On the fingerboard of the piano, the rosin ash accumulated over time will combine with the water vapor in the narrow air, and then condense into a layer of black mud, which is difficult to clean. If you don't want to leave it to an experienced piano repairer, you can try to wipe it off with a small amount of alcohol. But be careful not to let the alcohol touch the paint of the piano body, otherwise the paint will be dissolved by the alcohol, and the trouble will be big. Now you can buy a special oil for violin, which can maintain and clean the violin very well.     2. How to avoid damage to the violin?   A good violin is not only a tool, but also an antique, a work of art with high investment value. Therefore, protecting our musical instruments and keeping them in good health is a very important issue.     Although thanks to the advancement of modern technology and craftsmanship, the restoration technology of violins is becoming more and more perfect, but the restoration of some damaged violins is not only expensive, but also greatly reduces its value. For example, if the fret part at the bottom of the violin is broken, even if it is repaired, its value will also lose 50% to 60%. If the sound column or bass beam part of the panel is broken, the loss of its value is also about 20% to 40%. If the bow head of the bow is broken, its loss is more than 80%.       How can we avoid damage to the violin? First, put the instrument back into a sturdy case immediately after each use, and close the case. Nine out of ten badly damaged violins occurred outside the case. In addition, it is best to carry the violin by yourself, and only deliver it to a transportation company as a last resort, and choose a reputable transportation company, and pack it by a person with professional knowledge. Violins damaged in transit are mostly due to poor packaging. Some people think that putting a violin in a box and giving it to a shipping company is a big mistake. Because the design standard of the general piano box is not strong enough to cope with the unexpected situation in transportation. Therefore, even after putting the violin in the violin box, it is still necessary to let someone with experience in packing and transporting violins to pack and handle it. Delivery consignment. If it is a good piano. Better to buy insurance, just in case. The piano should not be exposed to the sun, not exposed to the rain, and should not be placed in the trunk of a car exposed to the scorching sun. Put a damp pipe in the violin when you turn on the heat at home in winter. Generally speaking, the more expensive the antique violin, the more easily damaged, the more careful it is.       3. What should I do if the violin is glued and the piano board is broken?   A violin is made of many different parts glued together. The luthier did not make the violin unbreakable at the beginning, because the violin may often be disassembled and adjusted in the future, so the accidental opening of the violin needs to be repaired immediately, but it is not a problem worth fussing about.     The places where the violin is easier to open the glue are often the middle seam of the bottom panel, the top panel, the glued part of the bottom panel and the side panel, the string nut, the tail rest, the fingerboard, etc. Among them, except for the joint between the central seam of the bottom panel and the bottom side panel, which needs to be firmly glued, other places are expected to be re-opened in the future when gluing. The glue opening caused by the wet weather or the perspiration of the performers is like a button falling off of clothes. It is a small thing that happens from time to time.   If the violin maker uses newer wood to make the violin, or if the glue is boiled or improperly used when gluing, it can also cause the violin to open. Since the violin glue will seriously affect the tone, and can make unpleasant noises when the instrument vibrates, so when this happens, although there is no need to panic, but also to the experts as soon as possible to re-gluing the violin.       In fact, it is also common for many new pianos to sound better after being opened and repaired due to cracks. Because the cracked place is often the place where the tension of the guitar body is greatest. After opening the repair and then closing it back to the original place, the tension is weakened, so the sound is more rounded. As soon as the piano board is broken, it should be repaired by an experienced technician as soon as possible. That new crack is almost invisible after clever patching, and it doesn't affect the tone.     4. What are the points of attention for violin pegs?       A well-installed peg (guidance) should be able to rotate freely. Generally speaking, if the peg is too tight. They should then be coated with a shaft wax specially designed to adjust the lubrication and tightness of the pegs to make them easy to spin. If the peg is slipping, you can try the shaft wax first; if the shaft wax is not enough, you can add some rosin powder. If these two methods do not work, it is necessary to check whether the inclination of the shaft taper of the peg is completely consistent with the inclination of the shaft hole. The way to check is: gently insert the peg into the shaft hole (do not squeeze it hard), and then shake it up and down, left and right; if the peg is completely matched, it will not shake at all. On the contrary, it means that there is a problem with the fit between the peg and the shaft hole. At this time, the piano should be sent to a professional for recalibration. Generally speaking, as long as the original shaft hole is not too large, even changing a set of pegs, or readjusting the taper of pegs and shaft holes is not a big and complicated problem. If the taper of the peg and the shaft hole is wrong, or the original shaft hole is too large, the shaft hole should be filled and re-opened. This kind of repair is time-consuming and labor-intensive, and the repair fee may naturally be more expensive. Therefore, it should be noted that the pegs of the new piano should not be too thick.   Another thing to note is that the four pegs must be at the right angle to each other (especially for the cello). There should be adequate space between the four strings without rubbing against each other. Furthermore, there should be enough space at the bottom of the peg box (box) of the headstock so that the strings will not be squeezed together. Both of the above conditions can cause premature string wear and string breakage. When winding, the last few turns of each string should be close to the side wall of the string groove.     音樂就是思想著的聲音。 Music is the sound of thinking.

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2022-04-30

「小提琴」9個超簡單步驟手把手教你更換小提琴琴弦 | 「violin」9 super simple steps to teach you how to change violin strings

關於如何更換小提琴弦的9個步驟   本期會將更換琴弦所有的步驟分的足夠細緻,讓一個完全的初學者也能掌握。這意味著它看起來有很多步驟,但別擔心,它並不像看起來那麼難。   當你開始這個過程時,你應該已經有了一套新琴弦。如果你需要關於購買的建議,請查看逆月音樂商店的精品小提琴琴弦!     更換小提琴琴弦包括兩個部分。拆除舊琴弦–每次一根–然後用新琴弦替換。千萬不要一次就把所有的琴弦都拆下來。換完一根弦後,你可以重複其他的弦。   這樣做的原因是,琴橋只是被琴弦固定住了。如果你一下子把所有的琴弦都拆掉,就沒有什麼東西可以固定琴橋了,所以它就會倒塌。除非是經驗豐富的專業小提琴演奏者且能夠熟練的更換小提琴的部件,否則初學者將無法把它放回去。在極少數情況下,甚至音柱也會變得鬆動,這都將自己無法解決的問題。   如果不急於更換所有的琴弦,您可以考慮只換一根琴弦,等上一兩天,直到琴弦不再沉澱和走音。除非你把它們磨合好,否則新琴弦在安裝後的幾天裡會不斷拉伸,如果你把四根琴弦都換了,那麼琴橋會隨著琴弦的拉伸而滑動。因此,如果你把琴弦都換了,要確保琴橋的腳平放在小提琴的木頭上。       第一步 拆除舊琴弦   如果你要更換所有的四根琴弦,在完全只取下一根琴弦之前,要稍微鬆開每根琴弦。緩慢地轉動琴栓以釋放張力,同時用另一隻手握住琴弦。     一旦木栓鬆動,就把琴弦拉出來,然後取下另一端–球或環。把舊琴弦放在信封裡,盤起來,寫上你取下繩子的日期。如果你的繩子斷了,而又沒有新的繩子,它就可以作為替代品派上用場。       第二步 用琴弦蠟潤滑琴軸   檢查音栓是否乾淨,如果有必要的話,把它擦乾淨。然後在上面擦一些琴弦蠟。有時會被稱為其他的名字,如琴弦肥皂,或琴弦化合物。琴弦蠟有一個小管子,就像唇膏一樣。在將琴軸插入孔中之前,將它塗滿整個琴軸。這將有助於你在調琴時轉動琴軸。       第三步  潤滑琴橋和琴枕凹槽(可選)   沒有特殊的產品,也不一定需要,但你可以把鉛筆芯抹到琴橋的凹槽裡,再抹到小提琴琴枕的凹槽裡。琴枕是指板和琴軸之間略微凸起的邊緣,它有凹槽來固定每根弦。     有時候,E弦上會有一個琴橋保護器–一個已經在弦上的小塑料管。如果有的話,你可以跳過這一步,因為這個管子便可以保護琴橋。     第4步  找到正確的替換弦   確保你有正確的琴弦,與你剛剛取下的那根琴弦的音高相同,例如用A弦代替A弦,等等。這可能看起來很明顯,但在嘗試做一些新的事情時,很容易就會搞錯琴弦。還要確保你使用的是全新的琴弦,因為即使是從未使用過並保存在包裝中的琴弦也會出現問題。它們的保質期通常為三個月左右。     第5步  將琴弦穿過琴軸孔   從外面把琴軸插入孔中,直到琴軸上的小孔在釘子盒的內側顯現出來。     將琴弦的一端穿過釘子上的小孔。在另一側留出一小部分,可能不到一英寸(2厘米)或更多一點。琴弦穿過的長度將決定琴弦調好後琴軸的角度。如果以後你想調整這個角度,你可以鬆開琴弦,改變它伸出來的程度。現在,重要的是要有足夠的空間讓琴弦不至於從琴軸中滑出。       沿著小提琴背面的方向轉動琴轴。     當你這樣做的時候,讓新上的弦穿過你留在外面的那部分,這樣它就能把它固定住。繼續以這樣的方式上弦,讓後面的位子在第一個環和琴軸凹槽的木頭之間。這將產生張力,使琴軸不至於鬆開並從琴軸凹槽中拉出。     第6步  將琴弦球端插入尾部   一旦你在琴軸上纏繞了足夠多的琴弦,使其安全固定,但又不至於太多,就可以把琴弦的球端插入尾管。   琴弦也可以有鉤狀的一端,它有自己的調節器,但對大多數用戶來說,使用帶球狀一端的琴弦更容易、更便宜。   如果你使用的是微調,那麼球就會鉤在細調音器的兩個棱角之間。否則,它就會滑入尾部的孔中。你可能需要用鉛筆頭之類的東西把弦的一端推到孔裡。       第7步  減少鬆弛   在這一步上,你應該已經有一根兩端都連接好的琴弦,但仍然相對鬆散地掛在琴身上。   用一根手指握住鬆動的琴弦,使其緊繃,這樣可以確保球狀的一端保持在原位,同時你要輕輕地進一步纏繞琴弦,把鬆弛的部分拿掉。慢慢地做,這樣你就可以引導琴弦進入兩端的相關凹槽。     如果這是E弦,而且你的琴弦有一個琴橋保護器,現在你需要確保這個管子落在琴橋的凹槽裡。再把琴弦拉緊,直到鬆弛的部分被消除,琴弦也就安全了。     將琴弦調到大致合適的音高。你可以用調音軟件、在線調音器、電動調音器來檢查,或者用鋼琴或調音叉彈出正確的音。   無論你怎麼調音,都要慢慢地進行這一步驟,以免因過度緊繃而斷弦。   第8步  檢查琴橋是否是垂直的   當琴弦或多或少的調好後,我們需要檢查琴橋是否仍然是直的。無論我們如何小心翼翼地安裝新的琴弦,琴橋還是會出現偏差。要確保它牢牢地平放在木頭上,並且在F孔凹槽之間穿過琴身,而不是斜著的。   第9步  最後的調音   現在你可以把琴弦調到合適的音高,如果你有的話,可以用微調器完成。琴弦需要3到7天的時間來完全定型。在這段時間裡,它們的聲音會很奇怪,而且經常走調。在需要的時候重新調整調音。         音樂就是思想著的聲音。 Music is the sound of thinking. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   9 Steps on How to Change Violin Strings I wanted to break this down enough for a complete beginner to be able to follow it. This means it looks like a lot of steps, but don’t worry, it isn’t as hard as it seems. When you start this process, you should already have a new set of strings. If you need advice on buying them, check out  our store for superb violin strings   Changing violin strings consists of two parts. Removing the old strings – one string at a time – and replacing them with new ones. NEVER remove all the strings at once. After you changed one string, you can repeat the process for the other ones. The reason for this is that the bridge is only held in place by the strings. If you remove all the strings at once, there will be nothing holding the bridge and so it will collapse. And unless you know what you are doing, you won’t be able to put it back. On rare occasions, even the soundpost can become loose, which is definitely something you cannot fix yourself. If you are not in a hurry to have all the strings replaced, you might consider changing one string only and waiting for a day or two until the string stops settling and going out of tune. Unless you break them in, new strings keep stretching over the days after fitting, and if you’ve replaced all 4 then the bridge can slip as the strings stretch. So if you do change them all, make sure the feet of the bridge lie flat against the wood of the violin.   Step 1. Remove the Old String If you’re replacing all four of them, slightly loosen each string before completely removing one string only. Slowly turn the peg to release the tension, while holding the string with the other hand. Be careful it doesn’t snap back at you. Once the peg is loose, pull the string out of it and then remove the other end – ball or loop. Save the old string in an envelope, coiled up, with a date of when you removed it. It can come in handy as a replacement if you break a string and don’t have a new one yet.   Step 2. Lubricate Tuning Peg With Peg Paste Check whether the peg is clean, wipe it off if necessary. Then rub some peg paste onto it. This can sometimes be called by other names, such as peg soap, peg wax, or peg compound. Peg paste comes in a small tube just like lipstick. Rub it all around the peg before inserting it into the hole. This will help you turn the peg when tuning the violin.   Step 3. Lubricate the Bridge and the Nut (optional) There is no special product for this and it isn’t always necessary, but you can rub the lead of a pencil into the groove on the bridge and into the groove on the violin nut. The nut is the slightly raised edge between the fingerboard and the pegbox, it has grooves in it to hold each string in place. Sometimes the E-string comes with a bridge protector – a small plastic tube that’s already on the string. If it is present, you can skip this step, as the tube will protect and also allow for motion at the bridge. You can still lubricate the nut. Step 4. Find the Right Replacement String Ensure that you have the correct string, the same pitch as the one you just removed, e.g. an A for an A, etc. This may seem obvious, but it is all too easy to lose track of things when trying to do something new. Also make sure you’re using brand new strings, as strings go off even if they have never been used and were kept in their packaging. They usually have a shelf life of three months or so. Step 5. Thread String Through Peg Insert the peg into the hole from the outside, until the small hole in the peg is visible on the inside of the pegbox. Poke the end of the string through the small hole in the peg. Allow a small amount to stick out on the other side, maybe just under an inch (2cm) or a bit more. The length of the string coming through will determine the angle of the peg once the string is tuned. If later on you want to adjust this angle, you can unwind the string and change how much of it sticks out. For now, what matters is that there is enough for the string to not slip out of the peg.   Turn the peg in the direction of the back of the violin.   As you do this, let the newly wound string go over the bit you left sticking out, so it holds it down. Continue to wind the string in such a way that the later bits go between the first loop and the wood of the pegbox. This will create tension that will keep the peg from unwinding and pulling out of the pegbox.   Step 6. Insert the Ball End Into the Tailpiece Once you have wound enough of the string around the peg so it is secure, but not too much, insert the ball end of the string into the tailpiece. Strings can also come with a hook end, which has its own adjuster, but for most users, it’s easier and cheaper to use strings with a ball end. If you are using fine tuners, the ball hooks in between the two prongs of the fine tuner. Otherwise, it slides into the hole in the tailpiece. You may need to use something like the tip of a pencil to push the end of the string into the hole. Step 7. Reduce the Slack At this point, you should have a string that is attached at both ends but still hangs relatively loose on the body of the violin. Holding the loose string with one finger, so it’s tight, which will ensure the ball end stays in its place, as you gently wind the string further to take off the slack. Do this slowly, so you can guide the string into the relevant groove on each end. If this is the E-string and your string has a bridge protector, now you need to make sure this tube lands on the groove in the bridge. Tighten the string further, just until the slack is removed, and the string is secure. Tune the string to roughly the right pitch. You can either check this using a tuner app, online tuner, electric tuner, or by playing the right note on a piano or tuner fork. If you need help in tuning, read my two posts about this topic: if you don’t have fine tuners Whatever you do, perform this step slowly, so as not to break a string from over-tightening it. Step 8. Check if the Bridge is Straight When the string is more or less in tune, we need to check if the bridge is still straight. No matter how carefully we fit the new strings, the bridge can still go out of alignment. Make sure it is sitting firmly and flatly on the wood, and it goes across the body between the f-hole notches, not diagonally. Step 9. Final Tuning Now you can tune the string to its proper pitch, finishing with the fine tuners if you have them. Strings will take anything from 3 to 7 days to settle fully. During this time they will sound strange and go out of tune quite often. Readjust the tuning when needed.

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