2022-09-24

「小提琴」經驗 | 聽12位大師分享怎樣練習小提琴的音階與琶音!| 「violin」Experience | Listen to 12 masters share how to practice the scales and arpeggios of the violin!

怎樣練習小提琴音階與琶音 聽聽12位大師的分享吧~     Zino Francescatti 吉諾·弗朗西斯卡蒂     🌟 我認為學生在學會了同指八度,就應該同時進行換指八度的練習。   Joseph Fuchs 約瑟夫·富克斯   🌟 三個八度的音階和琶音是所有小提琴技術的基礎。   🌟 雖然換指八度比同指八度更重要、更合理些,但在某些樂句為了取得特別效果,應當使用同指八度。   🌟 四個八度的音階拇指要盡量保留在琴頸上,要注意發展拇指和食指間的肌肉柔韌性,拇指越短這個部位肌肉就要越柔韌(虎口可以張得很開)。   Jascha Heifetz 亞沙·海菲茲   🌟 小提琴演奏技術的基礎就是音階。 它保證了各個把位的可靠性和雙手的配合。   🌟 要演奏三至四個八度的音階、琶音、半音音階、各式各樣的雙音音階和換指八度。 🌟 我希望學生拿出四分之三的時間來練習音階。   🌟 在練習這些音階時,還要結合自己演奏中的其它缺點。 如練習長弓練發音、練習各種困難的弓法等等。   🌟 假如我有半小時練琴時間的話,我會用20分鐘來練音階和顫音,剩下10分鐘練樂曲(某些困難片段)。     Ruggiero Ricci 拉基·黎奇   🌟 應當堅持用很快的速度,節奏均勻地連續練習三度和換指八度音階,可以考驗手指的力量。   🌟 音階拉不均勻,會在演奏任何古典協奏曲中顯露出來。 另一方面,如果能把音階拉好,就說明你的演奏就有了一定的基礎。   Joseph Szigeti 約瑟夫·西蓋蒂   🌟 我不主張學生長時間地用一種指定的指法練習音階。   Ivan Galamian 伊凡·加拉米安   🌟 小提琴音階的學習可以作為發展左右手多種技巧的手段。 音階可以用來發展音準,建立手的框架,他在訓練各種弓法、發音、運弓的劃分、力度、揉音等技巧都是非常有用的。   🌟 單音音階,應當先學習某一種指法,接下來應當使用不同的指法。   🌟 雙音音階中在學習基本的指法以後都可以改變指法,凡是使用單數把位的音階,應當用雙數位加以代替。 反之亦然。   🌟 雙音音階應當使用能夠不同的節奏、弓法和重音來練習。   🌟 單音的琶音在基本的指法已經掌握之後,就要改變指法。   Louis Persinger 路易士·帕辛格   🌟 我認為應當用三連音練習音階,這種節奏最不容易拉均勻,需要更多的注意和技巧。   Leopold Auer 萊奧波爾德·奧爾   🌟 只有唯一一種有效的方法可以獲得左手必須的技術,它能賦予手指所必須具備的獨立性、力量和靈活。 這種方法包括音階和一些特殊練習。   🌟 為了學習者的藝術而必須作出的犧牲是與音階和專門練習聯繫著的,因為這個必不可少和不令人感興趣的東西要想真正掌握它們是必須從學習的最初階段開始的。   🌟 教師利用第二提琴或鋼琴伴奏的建議或富於歌唱性的小曲來使音階練習多樣化則更好,這將增加學生對他的樂器和練習的熱情,同時可以培養聽覺、趣味和音樂感。   🌟 上行和下行六度音階,可以保持其中一個手指在弦上。 這樣避免因同時抬兩個手指而產生的空弦音。   🌟 八度音階:學生應集中注意力在一指而不是四指上,一指負責帶動四指。   🌟 八度音階兩個手指的移動必須是迅速的,即使在慢速樂曲中也是如此。   Leonid Kogan 列奧尼德·柯崗 🌟 我自己每天都練習音階,我感到他就像我每天都要吃飯、睡覺一樣重要。 如果我有一小時的練琴時間,我一定要練習半小時的音階,剩下來的半小時練練習曲。 它能使我的技術保持良好狀態,並能接連演出許多場音樂會而不感覺勞累。   🌟 我不贊成三個八度的音階,我只拉四個八度的音階。 因為最高的一個八度給提琴家們以充分的機會來練習高把位的快速演奏。   🌟 為了飽滿的聲音和正確的音準必須掌握所有的高把位。   Pinchas Zukerman 平克斯·朱克曼   🌟 音階應當成為提琴家的第一需要,我們所要注意的是優美的音色和完善的音準。   Henryk Szeryng 亨利克·謝林   🌟 我堅持要練習三個和四個八度的音階,三個八度的三、六、八、十度雙音、泛音、雙泛音音階,這些練習都要拉得細緻、精確、清楚,有完美的音準。   🌟 慢速練音階的時候要花許多時間和空弦對音,一方面抬指的動作要非常精確,一指又要盡可能地長時間保持在弦上,年輕的學生往往忽視這一點。   Rafael Bronstein 拉斐爾·布朗斯坦 🌟 在演奏連續三度雙音進行時,按2、4指時,不要把1、3指抬起來。   🌟 演奏八度時,換把應當快而結實,並使用小臂的動作。 雖然4指是軟弱的,可是它必須在換把中帶領手:應當保持一定硬度,這樣可以抵制住一指的動作。 4指和手的其它部分的關係應保持不變。 通過調整1指以便把音拉準。   🌟 為了使演奏十度時手應可能感到舒適,要把手放到靠前的位置上,先把4指按到高音上,然後再把1指伸向低音上去。 十度上行時,4指保持固定不變的姿勢,1指指導音準,演奏下行時,1指不僅要帶領換把,還要指導音準。   ****************************************************************************** English version   How to practice violin scales and arpeggios Listen to what 12 masters have to say!     Zino Francescatti 🌟 I think that once a student learns to play in the same octave, he or she should also practice in a different octave.   Joseph Fuchs  🌟 The three octaves of scales and arpeggios are the foundation of all violin technique. 🌟 Although the finger-switching octave is more important and logical than the same octave, in some phrases the same octave should be used for special effects. The shorter the thumb, the more flexible the muscles in this area should be (the tiger mouth can be opened very wide).     Jascha Heifetz   🌟 The foundation of violin playing technique is the scale. It guarantees the reliability of each position and the coordination of the hands. 🌟 To play scales of three to four octaves, arpeggios, chromatic scales, various diatonic scales and finger change octaves. 🌟 I expect students to devote three-quarters of their time to scales. 🌟 While practicing these scales, you should also incorporate other deficiencies in your playing. Such as practicing long bowing, practicing difficult bowing techniques, etc. 🌟 If I had half an hour to practice, I would spend 20 minutes on scales and trills, and the remaining 10 minutes on the piece (some difficult parts).   🌟 One should insist on practicing successive third and finger change octaves at a very fast pace and in an even rhythm, to test the strength of the fingers. 🌟 Unevenly drawn scales will show up in any classical concerto you play. On the other hand, if you can pull the scales well, you have a certain foundation in your playing. Joseph Szigeti 🌟 I don't advocate learning to practice scales for a long time with a specific fingering.   Ivan Galamian 🌟 The study of violin scales can be used as a means of developing a variety of skills in the right and left hands. Scales can be used to develop intonation and build the framework of the hand. They are very useful in training various bowing techniques, articulation, bow delineation, intensity, vibrato, etc. 🌟 In the monophonic scale, one should learn a certain fingering first and then use a different fingering. 🌟 In the diatonic scale, after learning the basic fingering, you can change the fingering, and any scale that uses single digits should be replaced by double digits. And vice versa. 🌟 Diatonic scales should be practiced with different rhythms, bowings and accents. 🌟 After the basic fingering has been mastered, the fingering of single-note arpeggios should be changed.   Louis Persinger    🌟 I think the scales should be practiced in triplets, this rhythm is the least evenly played and requires more attention and skill. Leopold Auer 🌟 There is only one effective way to acquire the necessary technique for the left hand, which gives the fingers the independence, strength and flexibility they must have. This method includes scales and some special exercises. The sacrifices that must be made for the learner's art are linked to scales and special exercises, because this essential and uninteresting thing has to be mastered from the very beginning of the learning process. 🌟 It is better if the teacher diversifies the scales by using suggestions for second violin or piano accompaniment or singing-rich ditties, which will increase the student's enthusiasm for his instrument and practice, while developing a sense of hearing, fun and musicianship. 🌟 Keep one of your fingers on the strings for the upper and lower sixth scales. This avoids the empty string tone that occurs when two fingers are lifted at the same time. 🌟 Octave scales: Students should concentrate on the first finger rather than the fourth finger, which is responsible for driving the fourth finger. 🌟 The movement of the two fingers in the octave must be rapid, even in slower pieces. Leonid Kogan 🌟 I practice scales myself every day, and I feel it is as important as eating and sleeping every day. If I have an hour of practice time, I make sure to practice scales for half an hour and rehearse exercises for the other half. It keeps my technique in good shape and allows me to play many concerts in a row without feeling tired. 🌟 I don't agree with the three octave scale, I only play the four octave scale. The highest octave gives the fiddler ample opportunity to practice fast playing in high positions. 🌟 In order to have a full sound and correct intonation one must master all the high stops. Pinchas Zukerman 🌟 Scales should be the fiddler's first need, all we need to pay attention to is a beautiful tone and perfect intonation. Henryk Szeryng 🌟 I insist on practicing scales of three and four octaves, three octaves of third, sixth, octave, tenth diatonic, overtone, and double overtone scales, all of which should be played with delicacy, precision, clarity, and perfect intonation. 🌟 When practicing scales at slow speed, one has to spend a lot of time with empty strings, on the one hand, the finger lift has to be very precise, and one finger has to stay on the string for as long as possible, which young students often neglect.   Rafael Bronstein 🌟 Do not lift the 1st and 3rd fingers when pressing the 2nd and 4th fingers while playing a continuous 3rd diatonic progression. 🌟 When playing the octave, the handle change should be quick and firm and use the small arm action. Although the 4th finger is weak, it must lead the hand during the changeover: it should be hard so that it can resist the 1st finger movement. The relationship between the 4th finger and the rest of the hand should remain the same. Adjust the 1st finger in order to get the tone right. 🌟 In order to make the hand feel comfortable when playing the tenths, place the hand in a forward position, pressing the 4th finger to the high note first and then extending the 1st finger to the low note. For the upward motion of the tenor, the 4th finger should remain in a fixed position and the 1st finger should guide the intonation. For the downward motion, the 1st finger should not only lead the shift but also guide the intonation.  

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2022-09-23

Saxophone|Why do you feel pain or skin damage on your lower lip when playing saxophone?

  When we play and practice saxophone for a long time, we will definitely feel tired. Our facial muscles, especially the mouth muscles, may be stiff and sore because we need to keep the embouchure for a long time. In fact, this situation is common to most people, and it is not a rare phenomenon. This is mainly because we can only train the muscles around the mouth in a few hours at ordinary times. In most cases, our facial muscles are in a very loose state. Of course, almost every musician who learns saxophone has ever felt the pain caused by the broken skin on his lower lip. What can we do to avoid or reduce the occurrence of these problems?   Why is my lip sore when playing saxophone?:https://youtu.be/Ia-S4jmkCAg   The reason why we feel pain or skin damage on thelower lip:     1. Strictly speaking, the correct embouchure of saxophone needs the lower lip to cover our lower teeth. Especially when beginners play, if they use the correct embouchure, it will be easier to play a full, warm, three-dimensional sound. However, since we need to wrap the lower teeth with the lower lip to play, it is inevitable that the lower teeth bite our lips.                                                          How hard are our teeth? As we all know, diamond is the hardest material in nature, and its hardness is rated as Grade 10. The surface of our teeth is a substance called enamel, and the hardness of enamel is rated as Grade 8! If we use our lips hard to cover the hard and sharp lower teeth for a long time, our lower lips will definitely be damaged.               2. If it takes a lot of effort to play saxophone, or you feel that you can only play saxophone with great power, you may need to adjust the instrument or its accessories. If the tip opening of the mouthpiece is too big, more breath and power will be used: many students have seen a certain performer use a mouthpiece and chose the same accessory in order to pursue the timbre effect. However, after buying it back, we found that we could not control it at all, and then used several times of our strength to play it, which led to physical discomfort. Therefore, we should remember to choose what was suitable for us and not blindly follow the wind. At the same time, if the reed is too thick, or the sealing of the instrument is not good, the instrument will leak, and so on, which will lead to similar problems.     Pain on bottom lip? What to do to play saxophone for longer: https://youtu.be/jbjFzZrlcGk    Six months rebellion music  brass alto saxophone: https://www.sixmonthsrebellion.com/products/jkeiworth-%E2%99%ADe-alto-saxophone-brass-alto-saxophone-gold-lacquer-alto-saxophone     How to avoid lower lip pain?:Play with the right force   When learning about saxophone at the beginning, many people will make a mistake that is too hard. For example, 30% of the correct strength should be used to play well, but 70% is used. This will cause excessive muscle tension, especially our lips will suffer more damage. This is just like when we suddenly go hiking for a whole day. The next day, we will definitely feel pain all over the body. In fact, this is also a muscle strain.   Therefore, when playing, we should actively look for the playing strength that suits us. When practicing, we should not just practice how not to make mistakes. When we get to our performance status, we will get twice the result with half the effort.       How to avoid skin damage on the lower lip?:Choose gum or other protective measures   Many students notice: My teeth are too sharp, no matter how I practice my lower lip, the skin will break. When this happens, we can take some protective measures.     For example: use special dental gum             The special gum can be shaped according to the shape of your teeth, and the material is soft and can be reused. And the material of this kind of gum is thick, even if it is used for a long time, it will not be damaged or invalid. But the only problem is that this kind of gum is too thick, and students who have strict requirements on playing comfort may feel uncomfortable.       For example, use oil blotter instead of special gum           Many students suffering from the lower lip don't like the thick texture of gum, and think that the use of gum will affect the performance. So you can choose oil blotter to replace gum. You can try to fold and wet oil blotter and put it on the lower teeth, and try to put it at the right angle. This method can also relieve the pain or skin damage of the lower lip, but the oil blotter will be damaged after being wet for a long time, so we need to replace it in time.

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2022-09-23

色士風|為什麼演奏色士風時會感到下唇疼痛或破皮?

     當我們長時間演奏練習色士風時,大家肯定會感到疲憊,我們的面部肌肉尤其是嘴部肌肉因為需要長時間保持口型可能會出現僵硬酸痛的情況。其實這個情況是絕大多數人都會有的,也並不是一個罕見的現象,這主要是因為我們在平時只有在很少的時間能夠訓練到嘴周的肌肉,大多數情況下我們的面部肌肉都處於一個十分放鬆的狀態。當然,幾乎每一位學習色士風的樂手都曾感受到過下嘴唇破皮所帶來的疼痛,那究竟怎樣做才能避免或減少些問題的發生呢?   Why is my lip sore when playing saxophone?:https://youtu.be/Ia-S4jmkCAg   下嘴唇疼痛或破皮的原因:   1、嚴格來說,色士風正確的口型是需要下嘴唇包住我們的下方牙齒的。尤其是初學者在演奏時,如果使用了正確的口型就會更容易演奏出飽滿、溫暖、立體的聲音。但是既然要用下嘴唇包住下方牙齒進行演奏,那下方牙齒咬到我們的嘴唇這件事情就一定無法避免。                                                                   我們的牙齒究竟有多硬呢?大家應該都知道,金剛石是自然界最堅硬的物質,它的硬度被定為10級。我們的牙齒的表面是一種被稱為琺瑯質的物質,而琺瑯質的硬度被定為8級!如果我們長時間用力使用嘴唇包住堅硬又鋒利的下牙,那我們的下嘴唇肯定會受到傷害。             2、如果演奏色士風的時候比較費力氣,或者是感覺自己只有用非常大的力氣才能將色士風吹響,那你或許需要對樂器或者樂器的配件進行調適了。如果吹嘴的口風過大就會使用更多的氣息和力量:有很多學生看了某位演奏家使用了某款吹嘴後,為了追求音色效果選擇了同款配件。但是在買回之後發現自己根本無法掌控它,然後使用幾倍的力量去進行吹奏導致身體出現不適,所以我們在選擇的時候切記要選擇適合自己的,不要盲目追風。同時,成簧片過厚會、樂器密封性不好則會導致樂器漏氣等等現象都會導致出現類似的問題。     Pain on bottom lip? What to do to play saxophone for longer: https://youtu.be/jbjFzZrlcGk   逆月音樂精選黃銅中音色士風: https://www.sixmonthsrebellion.com/products/jkeiworth-%E2%99%ADe-alto-saxophone-brass-alto-saxophone-gold-lacquer-alto-saxophone         如何避免下嘴唇疼痛?:使用正確的力度進行演奏    在初學色士風時,很多人都會走進一個誤區那就是太過用力。比如應該使用30%是正確的力度就能演奏好,但是卻使用了70%。這樣用力過度就會造成肌肉過度緊張,尤其是我們的嘴唇一定會受到更多的傷害。這就好比我們在突然間去登山一整天,第二天肯定會感覺到全身酸疼,其實這也算是一種肌肉拉傷。  因此我們在演奏的時候要積極去尋找適合自己的演奏力度,在練習時我們不要一昧的只去練習如何不出現失誤,當我們找到了自己的演奏狀態之後一定會事半功倍。           如何避免下唇破皮?:選擇牙膠或者其它保護措施    有很多同學反應:我的牙齒實在是太鋒利了,不論我怎樣練習下嘴唇都會破皮。當出現這種情況時,我們可以採取一些保護措施。   例如:使用專用牙膠          專用的牙膠可以根據你牙齒的形狀進行塑形,並且材質柔軟可以進行重複使用。並且這類牙膠的材質偏厚,就算進行長期使用也不會破損或失效。但是唯一的問題就是這類牙膠偏厚,對演奏舒適度有嚴格要求的學生可能會感到不適。       例如:使用吸油面紙代替專用牙膠             有很多受下嘴唇折磨的同學不喜歡牙膠厚重的質感,認為使用牙膠會對演奏造成影響,那大家可以選擇吸油面紙來替代牙膠。濕潤後放在下方牙齒上,大家可以嘗試將吸油面紙折疊,並去管試放置的角度。這種方式同樣能夠緩解下嘴唇的疼痛或破皮現象,但是吸油面紙濕潤後時間久了會出現破損的現象,因此需要我們及時進行更換。  

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2022-09-23

Guitar | Should Guitar Beginners Learn Music Theory

  The most common question a beginner guitarist tends to ask is if he or she should learn music theory. While most responses to that question are ‘you don’t Need To’, they’re often followed by ‘but you Should’.    And here’s why.   Learning music theory is important to a guitarist, especially if you’re a beginner. You’ll understand the relationship between each note, scale, chord and key, allowing you to become a proactive player with creative improvisations, and not just relying on reading sheet music.   Many shy away from music theory for the fact that it looks intimidating, especially for a beginner. And most of all, it looks boring.    Some guitar teachers refrain from teaching music theories in the beginning for the fact that they want to keep the level of interest and enthusiasm high for the students so they’ll continue learning.   But like learning any new language, it’s important that you have some basic understanding of certain music theories (structures), which will be the difference between you becoming a guitarist who’s hoping to be better, and one that’s actually getting better.   I believe a better question you should be asking at this point is what kind of music theory should you be learning as a guitarist beginner and why should you be learning it.   This is what we’ll be focusing on today, the ‘What’s’ and ‘Why’s’ of 3 main elements of music theory to help you get better at playing the guitar.   Should Beginner Guitarist Learn:   Notes on a Fretboard Guitar Scales Key Signatures   But before you read on, if you're very new to music theory and have yet to understand what a note, key or octave is, you can hop on over here 'Music Theory Breakdown: Notes, Keys & Octaves' to get a basic idea before continuing with the below article.   Should Beginner Guitarists Learn the Notes on a Fretboard   The musical note is the backbone of the musical language. Like how words are made up of alphabets in the English language, A to Z, musical notes serve as the building blocks for chords and scales, giving each its meaning (unique sound).   Learning where each note is on a fretboard is important because it lets you know where you are in terms of pitch and where you need to go to produce the next sound in a higher or lower pitch and octave.   On a piano, it’s visually easier because you just move horizontally to the left or right for a lower pitch or a higher pitch. But on a guitar fretboard, you can move both horizontally and vertically for the same task.   For example, if you are to play the E major scale on a piano, you will play in ascending order from the low E on the left, to the high E on the right. Vice versa, in descending order from right to left.   On a guitar, however, instead of just playing it horizontally, you can also play it vertically. And this is what makes the guitar different, you can play the same note, chords, or scale in different positions.   Hence by learning where your notes are on your fretboard, you’ll harness the knowledge and reference to knowing the different positions where you can play a certain note, chord, or scale.     Should Beginner Guitarists Learn Scales   If notes are comparable to words and alphabets, then scales are the different ways in which you can put certain words together to form a sentence that will sound good.   The importance of learning scales for a beginner guitarist is that it provides a structural framework of how different notes work well together in different scales. It also lends itself to producing better finger techniques, fretboard knowledge, and ear training.   There are many scales in the musical vocabulary, every note has its own scale. For instance, the C major scale, the A minor scale, or the Bb major scale. Each of these scales are made up of 7 notes that play well together.   There is also the Pentatonic scale for each note, like the C major pentatonic scale or the A minor pentatonic scale, all made up of 5 notes, hence the name ‘Penta’.    You may begin learning with any of these scales depending on the music you’re into. With guitars and popular songs, the pentatonic scale is a good place to start. In this video, you’ll see examples of how and where pentatonic scales are being used.     When you’re equipped with the knowledge of scales, you will be able to be more creative in your playing. For example, you can start improvising a lick or solo of a song you like, or you can find a scale that is in the matching key and start creating your own licks and solos.   In the following video, you’ll see how you can use one scale or multiple scales to spice up your music when you’re playing along with a song.     Using guitar scales, you can also reverse engineer and find the chords of a song or how the solo of a song is played by matching the scale to the key of the song, and in turn, find the relative notes and chords of the song.   In this video, you’ll see how by using scales, you’re able to work out the key of a song, and subsequently find the chords it uses and how the solo part is played.     It can be overwhelming at first to see all the scales out there. But don’t worry, you don’t have to learn everything at once, nobody does.    Just focus on one scale at a time, for instance the A minor pentatonic scale. Learn its shapes and positions on the fretboard and its application, then move onto another one.     Should Beginner Guitarists Learn Key Signatures   In the previous part, you may have seen the word ‘keys’ mentioned a few times. So, if notes are words and alphabets, and scales are the ways you structure these words into sentences, then keys are the venues in which you put these different sentences to use.   The importance of learning keys for beginner guitarists is that you can quickly understand a piece of music and its related notes, chords, scales and thus be able to play with a matching set of chords and scales accordingly in order to produce harmonic melodies.   Meaning, if a piece of music is written in the key of C major, then everything here on will be related to the key of C major. Regardless of the notes, chords or scales.    Even if the chords and notes are from the group of borrowed chords in its parallel key, it’ll be related to C major. To learn more about borrowed chords and parallel keys, check out our article on how simple the Circle of Fifths can help improve your music theory knowledge.   A simple way to understand key signatures is to think of it as a venue you’re going to. Every venue has its set of appropriate language to be used, a code of conduct, and even dress codes.   If you’re going to a party, then the languages and words you’ll be using would tend to be louder, brighter and happier.   If you’re going to a library, then the language and words, even volume, will be more mellow and soft.   Hence if you understand what key a music is in, you’ll be able to dig into your knowledge of chords and scales based on that key, and start creating melodies that go well with that key (within the environment).   In conclusion, there are many aspects of music theory that you as a beginner guitarist do not or never have to learn. But in order to truly enhance your overall experience as a guitarist, the above mentioned music theories are important skill sets to have, if not necessary.   One tool that can greatly help you on your journey of learning music theories is the Circle of Fifths. It’s a useful tool where you can visually figure out each key, note, chord and their relations at a glance. Be sure to check out all 3 parts (Part 1, Part 2, Part 3) and put it to use right away.   Rock On lnnl,   Related resources:   How To MEMORIZE Your Guitar FRETBOARD: The No-Nonsense Exercise That Actually Works   The Right Way To Practice SCALES On Guitar   Key Signatures – Everything You Need To Know in 6 minutes

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2022-09-23

吉他 | 初學吉他手該學樂理嗎

  初學吉他手最常問的問題是他該不該學樂理。雖然對這個問題的大多數回答是 “要學吉他不需要學樂理”,但往往後面所伴隨的建議經常會是 “但如果學了會更好”。   為什麼呢?   學習樂理對於一位吉他手而言很重要,尤其是初學者。因為你會透過樂理了解每個音符、音階、和弦和調號之間的關係,讓你成為一名具有創造及創作的演奏者,而不僅僅是依靠閱讀樂譜才能彈奏的吉他手。   很多吉他手都會盡量避開樂理,因為它看起來複雜得嚇人,尤其是對於初學者而言更是如此。最重要的是,它看起來很無聊。   一些吉他老師一開始也會避開教授音樂理論,因為他們希望維持學生對音樂的興趣和熱情,以便他們會繼續學習。   但就像學習任何新的語言一樣,對某些音樂理論(結構)有一些基本的了解還是非常重要且必要的,這將是你處於一名永遠希望能變得更好和真正會變得更好的吉他手之間的區別。   我相信此時你所該問的問題應該是,作為吉他初學者,你應該學習什麼類型的樂理,以及為什麼要學習它。   這就是我們今天要關注的內容,音樂理論中的其中 3 個主要元素“是什麼” 和 “為什麼要學它”,以幫助你成為一名全方位的吉他手。   初學吉他手應該學習:   知道指板上的音符 吉他音階 調號   在這之前,如果你對於音符,音調和八度音還很陌生的話,不妨先參考這篇 ‘讓你一次搞懂音符, 音調和音階’ 的文章,再回來這裡。     初學吉他手應該學習指板上的音符嗎   音符是音樂語言的支柱。就像單詞是如何由英文字幕中的 A 到 Z 所組成的一樣,音符充當和弦和音階的構建塊,賦予每個音符各自的意義(獨特的聲音)。   了解每個音符在指板上的位置很重要,因為它可以讓你知道你在音高方面的位置以及你需要去哪里以更高或更低的音高和八度音程產生下一個聲音。   在鋼琴上,因為你只需水平的向左或向右移動以獲得更低的音高或更高的音高,所以在視覺角度上來判斷音符的位置比較容易。但是在吉他指板上,一個音節的彈法是可以橫向或垂直移動的。   例如,如果你要在鋼琴上彈奏 E 大調音階,你會按升序從左側的低 E 到右側的高 E。相對的從高音往低音去,就按從右到左的降序排列。   然而,在吉他上,你不僅可以橫向來彈,還可以垂直來彈。這就是吉他的不同之處,你可以在不同的位置演奏相同的音符、和弦或音階。   因此,通過了解你的音符在指板上的位置,你將能利用此知識和作為參考來了解你可以演奏某個音符、和弦或音階的不同位置。     初學吉他手應該學習音階嗎   如果音符類似於單詞和字母,那麼音階是你可以將這些單詞組合在一起,形成不同的句子的不同方式。   學習音階對於初學吉他手的重要性在於它提供了一個結構框架,說明不同音符如何在不同音階中很好地協同工作。它還有助於產生更好的手指技巧、指板知識和聽力的訓練。   音樂詞彙中有很多音階,每個音符都有自己的音階。例如,C 大調、A 小調或 Bb 大調。每個音階都由 7 個相匹配的音符組成,演奏起來聲音融洽。   還有一種音階叫五聲音階 (Pentatonic Scale),如C大調五聲音階或A小調五聲音階,均由5個音符所組成,因此得名 “五聲/Penta”。   根據你喜歡的音樂,你可以從這些音階中的任何一個開始學習。對於吉他和流行歌曲來說,五聲音階是一個比較被廣為使用的音節,是一個很好的起點。在下列視頻中,你將看到五聲音階是如何運用的範例。     當你具備音階知識後,你將能夠在演奏中更有創意。例如,你可以開始即興演奏你喜歡的歌曲的連音或獨奏,或者你可以找到匹配調號的音階並開始創造自己的連音和獨奏。   在下面的視頻中,你將看當你與一首歌曲一起演奏時,可以如何使用一個音階或多個音階來為你的音樂增添趣味。     藉由吉他音階,你還可以返鄉操作的通過音階與歌曲音調的匹配性,找出歌曲所用的和弦或歌曲的獨奏方式,進而找到歌曲的相關音符和和弦。   在本視頻中,你將了解如何通過使用音階來確定歌曲的調號,然後找到它使用的和弦以及如何演奏獨奏部分。     在一開始學習音節的時候,看到那麼多種的音節難免會讓人不知所措。但別擔心,你不必一次學會所有的音節,且也沒有人會這麼做。   一次只專注在一個音階就好,例如 A 小調五聲音階。了解它在指板上的形狀和位置及其應用,然後才朝下一個音節邁進。     初學吉他手應該學習調號嗎   在前幾段你或許多次注意到 “調/調號” 這個詞。簡單說,如果音符是單詞和字母,而音階是你將這些單詞構造成句子的方式,那麼調號就是你使用這些不同句子的場合。   學習調號對於一名初學吉他手的重要性在於,你可以快速理解一首音樂及其相關的音符、和弦、音階,從而能夠相應地使用一組匹配的和弦和音階演奏,以產生和聲的旋律。   意思是,如果一首音樂是用C大調寫的,那麼這裡開始的一切都將與C大調有關。無論是音符、和弦還是音階。   即使和弦和音符來自平行調號的借用和弦組,它也會與C大調相關。要了解更多有關借用和弦和平行調號的更多信息,你可以看看這篇關於五度圈能如何簡單地幫助你提高你的音樂理論知識的文章。   理解調號的一種簡單方法是將其視為你要去的一個場合。不同的場合都都會有一套屬於他自己的語言、行為準則,甚至著裝規範。   假設你要去參加一個排隊,那麼在這種場合所會使用的語言和詞語往往會比較響亮、更明亮、更快樂。   但如果今天你去的是圖書館,那麼適合此場合的語言和文字,甚至音量,就相對的會更加圓潤柔和,低調。   因此,如果你了解音樂的調性,你將能夠根據該調深入了解和弦和音階,並開始創作與該調相匹配的旋律(符合環境)。   結論,作為一名初學的吉他手,有許多樂理方面的知識是不需要或永遠不必學習的。但是,為了要真正能提升你作為吉他手的整體功能及體驗,上述的幾個樂理是你必須具備的重要技能。   一個大幅度幫助你學習音樂理論的工具是「五度圈」。它可以讓你一目了然地找出每個調號、音符、和弦及其關係。此文章系列分為 3 個部分(第 1 部、第 2 部、第 3 部),有興趣可以看看並將所學立即投入使用。     Rock On lnnl,     Related resources:     How To MEMORIZE Your Guitar FRETBOARD: The No-Nonsense Exercise That Actually Works   The Right Way To Practice SCALES On Guitar   Key Signatures – Everything You Need To Know in 6 minutes

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2022-09-17

Saxophone|How can beginners easily play the high notes of saxophone

The performance of the high pitch and low pitch areas of saxophone has always been a problem for beginners. Some students even said that some high or low pitch can only be played when practicing a complete scale. If a certain high pitch or low pitch is played alone, there may be howling or no sound. When these problems occur, first of all, don't rush to repeat the playing experiment. Some experienced players also have these problems from time to time. Therefore, we should first find out the reasons why we can't play normally, and then we solve them one by one. This article will explain the reasons why it is difficult to play high notes and the solutions.   Common Saxophone Treble Problems and Solutions 1.Reed     The reed is an important accessory of saxophone. saxophone makes sound mainly by the vibration of the reed. The reed will vibrate xx times per second on average when we play. You can remove the reed on the mouthpiece to try, even if you have enough breath, you can't play the instrument. And the reed is made of natural reed, which has a service life, so we should check the reed state in time.     Before playing, we should first check whether the reed is damaged or stained. After confirming the basic state of the reed, we should start to wet and soften the reed. If the reed is too dry, it will make it unable to carry out normal vibration, which will lead to the phenomenon that the playing timbre is not beautiful, too sharp, howling or unable to play sound. The timbre of saxophone can be directly determined by the good or bad state of the reed.     As the reed is made of natural materials, we must pay attention to protecting the reed when using it, and clean it in time after use, which can extend the use time of the reed. In addition, beginners may not know how to use and play correctly because they are new to saxophone. In order not to cause unnecessary waste, we can choose resin reed to practice at the beginning.   How to Choose the Right Saxophone Reed:https://youtu.be/AwOYLDQgj4E                       2.Incorrect mouth shape and strength     In order to play a good treble, in addition to reeds, we should learn the correct mouth shape and strength. The lips are an important medium to connect the human body and musical instruments, and the mouth shape is the best vibration point to support the reed, so our mouth shape is also related to our timbre.     We have already introduced how to make a standard and correct mouth shape in previous articles, so today we mainly explain the strength of playing and how to find a suitable playing method.   Deep analysis of saxophone playing embouchure – learn the four methods to solve problems of embouchure easily:https://www.sixmonthsrebellion.com/blog/posts/deep-analysis-of-saxophone-playing-embouchure-learn-the-four-methods-to-solve-problems-of-embouchure-easily       Because each of us has different breath, strength, even the thickness of our lips and the length of our tongues, everyone needs different breath, strength and even the best vibration point when playing. Beginners often have a mistake when they begin to play saxophone, that is, they overexert and tighten their mouth. They will silently recite every requirement of the teacher in their mind. Some students also think that they can play beautiful timbre if they can achieve the best of all their knowledge points. However, in fact, when playing, we need to loosen more. Loosening here does not mean complete loosening, but a controlled playing in a comfortable state.       In order to find a suitable playing method, we can try it ourselves, for example:     Find the right shaking point for yourself:       Hold a small number of mouthpieces to try, and then slowly hold more mouthpieces to try. In          attempts, you can find your best voice, that is, the best vibration point.        Find the tightness that suits you:      At the beginning, we can play with a looser embouchure, and then continue to tighten the embouchure to find out the tightness of the embouchure that can play the most beautiful tone. When we find the tightness of our embouchure and the best vibration point, we need to practice repeatedly and memorize to finally realize muscle memory. After mastering, we can easily play high volume music.               3.Can't use breath correctly       If you want to sound the saxophone, there is another very important element, that is, breath. Having sufficient and powerful breath is also what every musician who plays saxophone is looking forward to, because in some difficult music, the performer is usually required to have a very high lung capacity to express the music.     In the previous articles, we have introduced the method of practicing vital capacity in detail, and I believe you have learned it very thoroughly. However, there are still some students who can’t use their strength properly. They will even spend more time playing musical instruments than some people with small lung capacity. This shows that you haven't found the right way to use breath. 5 Tips for Beginner Saxophonist to Increase Lung Capacity:https://www.sixmonthsrebellion.com/blog/posts/5-tips-for-beginner-saxophonist-to-increase-lung-capacity    In fact, when we play saxophone, we don't have to play hard. You can watch some performance videos. Most of you are very loose and happy when playing saxophone, and this kind of problem is generally due to your failure to master the basic skills. How can we solve this problem?     First of all, we cannot play musical instruments with all our strength, because beginners often have no concept of "strength", so they will play hard. After we confirm the embouchure and lip strength, we should try to play the change of reed vibration caused by the change of breath from weak to strong, and try to play weak, strong and normal volume, on the premise of ensuring that the lips hold the mouthpiece and do not leak. When we can freely control our breath, we can easily play music of different volumes. At this time, we believe that we have learned how to use breath correctly.    

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2022-09-17

色士風|初學者如何輕鬆演奏出色士風的高音?

         色士風的高音區與低音區的演奏一直都是初學者的困擾,甚至有同學反應有一些偏高或者偏低的音只有在練習完整的音階時能夠演奏出來,如果單獨去演奏某個高音或者低音可能會出現嘯叫或者有發不出聲音的現象出現。當大家出現這些問題的時候,首先不要急著去反複的吹奏實驗,一些有經驗的色士風演奏者也時不時會有這些問題出現。因此,我們首先要找到無法正常演奏的原因是什麼,然後我們在進行逐一的解決,本篇文章將會講解出現演奏高音困難的原因以及解決的方法。   1、簧片       簧片是色士風的一個重要配件,色士風之所以能發出聲音主要是靠簧片的振動,在我們演奏時簧片平均每秒會振動440次。大家可以拆掉吹嘴上的簧片試一下,即時你有再充足的氣息還是不能夠吹響樂器。並且簧片的材料是天然的蘆葦,它是有使用壽命的,因此我們更要及時檢查簧片狀態。      我們在演奏前,首先要檢查簧片是否有破損或污漬。當確認好簧片的基本狀態後,我們要開始對簧片進行濕潤和軟化。如果簧片過於乾燥會使使它無法進行正常的振動,會導致演奏音色不優美、過於尖銳、嘯叫或者無法演奏出聲音的現象出現,簧片狀態的好與壞可以直接決定色士風的音色。    由於簧片是有天然材質製作而成的,因此我們在使用時一定要注意去保護簧片,用完之後及時清潔,這樣可以延長簧片的使用時間。另外,初學者因為剛接觸色士風,可能還不懂得如何去正確使用與演奏。為了造成不必要的浪費,大家在剛開始練習時可以選擇樹脂材質的簧片來進行練習。 How to Choose the Right Saxophone Reed:https://youtu.be/AwOYLDQgj4E                        2、口型不正確,力度不正確      想要演奏出好聽的高音,除了簧片之外,大家還要學會正確的口型以及力度。嘴唇是連接人體與樂器的一個重要的媒介,口型則是支撐簧片的最佳震動點因此我們的口型也關係者我們的音色。        我們在之前的文章中已經介紹過如何做出標準、正確的口型,因此我們今天主要為大家講解吹奏的力度以及如何尋找適合自己的演奏方法。 深度剖析色士風的口型問題:https://www.sixmonthsrebellion.com/blog/posts/572        因為我們每個人的氣息、力量甚至嘴唇的厚薄、舌頭的長短等都是不同的,所以每個人在演奏時所需要的氣息、力度甚至最佳震動點都是不同的。初學者在剛開始吹奏色士風時通常都會有一個誤區,那就是用力過度、嘴部過緊,並且會在心裡默念老師的每一個要求,也會有一部分學生認為能夠所有的知識點全部都做到最佳就能吹奏出美妙的音色。但事實上,在吹奏的時候更多的是需要我們去放鬆,這裡的放鬆並不指完全的鬆懈,而是用一種舒適的狀態去進行有控制的演奏。   為了找到適合自己的演奏方法,我們可以自己進行嘗試,例如:   找到適合自己的震動點:         含住較少量的吹嘴進行嘗試演奏,再慢慢含住多一點吹嘴進行演奏嘗試。在多次的嘗試中,你可以找到你的最佳音色也就是最佳震動點。    找到適合自己的鬆緊度:       我們在剛開始的時候可以用一個較鬆的口型進行吹奏,然後再不斷加緊口型,在多次嘗試當中找到能夠演奏出最美音色的口型鬆緊度。        當我們找到適合自己的口型鬆緊度與最佳震動點之後,要反覆多次練習並記憶最終實現肌肉記憶,在熟練之後我們就可以非常輕鬆的演奏出高音量的音樂。   3、不會正確使用氣息          想要吹響色士風還有一個很重要的因素,那就是氣息。擁有充足、有力的氣息也是每一個演奏色士風的音樂人都十分嚮往的,因為在一些難度較大的樂曲當中通常會要求演奏者擁有非常高的肺活量來表現音樂的色彩。        我們在之前的文章中已經詳細的為大家介紹過練習肺活量的方法,相信大家已經學習的非常透徹了。但是,仍舊有一些學生空有一身的力氣但是卻感覺自己並不會用力氣,吹樂器的時候甚至會比一些肺活量小的人還要費力氣,這就證明你還是沒有找到正確的方法來使用氣息。 5項幫助色士風初學者提升肺活量的方法:https://www.sixmonthsrebellion.com/blog/posts/5-%E9%A0%85%E5%B9%AB%E5%8A%A9%E8%89%B2%E5%A3%AB%E9%A2%A8%E5%88%9D%E5%AD%B8%E8%80%85%E6%8F%90%E5%8D%87%E8%82%BA%E6%B4%BB%E9%87%8F%E7%9A%84%E6%96%B9%E6%B3%95       其實,在演奏色士風時,我們不會使用太多的力氣。大家可以觀看一些色士風的演奏視頻,大家在演奏色士風的時候大多是非常輕鬆愉悅的,而出現這類問題的學生一般都是沒有掌握好基本功,那我們要怎麼解決這個問題呢?    首先我們不能用盡全身力氣來演奏樂器,因為初學者往往對“用力”沒有什麼概念,所以就會拼命的用勁。當我們確認好口型、嘴唇力度之後,我們要在確保嘴唇含住吹嘴不漏氣的前提下,嘗試演奏氣息由弱到強的變化帶來的簧片振動強弱的變化,嘗試演奏弱音、強音與正常的音量。當我們能夠自由控制自己的氣息之後,就能夠輕鬆的演奏出不同音量的音樂,在此時相信大家已經學會了如何正確的使用氣息。        

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2022-09-17

「小提琴」國際五大考級——倫敦聖三一考級,你需要知道的都在這裡,快快收藏!| 「violin」Top 5 International Examinations —— Trinity London Examinations, all you need to know is here, bookmark it!

倫敦聖三一音樂考級 Trinity Exams           倫敦聖三一音樂考試是世界上最古老、最權威的考試機構之一,目前這所擁有百年曆史的老牌音樂考試機構已經在世界上60多個國家設立考點。多年來,在英國本土及世界各地具有廣泛影響力和權威性。           一,想要了解聖三一音樂考級,我們可以聯繫之前幾期介紹的關於英國皇家音樂學院ABRSM的考級(點擊回顧英皇考級相關內容)對比來看看他們之間有什麼聯繫和區別。下面是逆月音樂部落格專門為大家整理的對比表格。               二.介紹了這麼多,倫敦聖三一考級的相關內容,那麼關於國際考級,我們順便說一說國際考級好在哪裡呢?     1.側重培養全面素質:   國外的音樂考級和中國大陸音樂考級相比,除了考評音樂演唱、演奏的能力之外,還更注重音樂知識的綜合測評。這些國際性的考級的考試內容往往比國內要多得多,比如樂理、視奏、聽力、作曲等等。這就在很大一方面對培養考生的音樂綜合素質做出了要求。     2.曲目選擇範圍廣:   與國外大多數考級的同級別比較,國內所選曲目在技術難度上要深一些,音樂上則要求簡單,也因此有些老師在音樂方面對孩子的訓練和培養少。   並且在曲目選擇上,國內考級也比較狹窄。而國外的考級曲目的選擇範圍一般廣泛,涉及了很多作曲家的作品,且相當一部分不論從作曲家還是作品都是我們所不熟悉的。除此之外,還選有大量的20世紀作品。很多曲目音樂性要求較高,但是技術難度與國內相比要低一到兩級左右。當然,也有考級曲目的選擇兩國不僅相同且安排在同一級別,這樣的曲目通常是音樂上要求較高的作品。     3.鼓勵主動學習:   同時,國外的考級大都需要考生進行曲目的簡短介紹並且與考官進行交流;要想通過這樣的交流贏得考官的好感;考生平時就需要有意識地查看大量的音樂文獻,來了解不同時期作品的風格有什麼不同,主要作曲家的生平歷史、趣事、佳話,經典作品的創作背景,如何分析樂曲的曲式、結構、織體等等,最重要的還是要聽大量的唱片來比較分析,印證理論的學習,化被動的學習為主動的研究,而這是我們國內的學生最缺乏的一點。     4.更注重對創作力的培養:   舉例來說:英國皇家音樂學院的樂理考試,不但專業而且趣味性也十足,包括一些作曲的基本技能,如一些節奏的創作,給一段詩句創作八小節的旋律等,這是對創作能力的培養。同時,國外的大部分考級體系的表演環節都會有即興伴奏或者視奏的要求,這也是激發考生培養創造力的手段之一。     5.為走出國門增加砝碼:   目前,在世界範圍被廣泛認可的音樂等級考試全部來自於國外:其中聖三一還獲得了學歷與學分體系(QCF)的認可,可以和多個國家的教育體系進行同等學歷換算。對廣大志在走出國門的留學生而言,參加國際性的音樂等級考試是一個向世界證明自己的機會,在申報英美院校時,這樣一份可以橫向比較的成績單,無疑能為自己的簡歷增添一份競爭力。     三,專門為大家找到了香港地區倫敦聖三一考試的鏈接       “”倫敦聖三一音樂考試“”       四,如何充分準備倫敦聖三一考試呢?   除了要完全了解透徹考試內容以及相關要求信息,最重要的還是學生本身的演奏水平,你是否還在為有瓶頸不知道怎麼練琴而困惑呢?線下課無法滿足平時練習時的反饋?那麼來關注逆月音樂的遙距小提琴網課吧。   全部海外優質師資,讓你不再在練琴上事倍功半,現在還有免費的線上試聽課,快點擊“小提琴免費試聽課”來認識你心儀的老師,幫助你順利通過考試,提升小提琴演奏水平,更加享受音樂帶來的美好吧。       ***************************************************************************************************************************   English version   Trinity Exams London           Trinity Exams London is one of the world's oldest and most authoritative examination bodies. Over the years, it has gained influence and authority in the UK and around the world.       To learn more about the Holy Trinity Music Examinations, we can compare and contrast the ABRSM examinations (click to review the content of the ABRSM examinations) to see how they relate to each other. Below is a comparison table specially compiled for you by the Against the Moon Music Blog.       II. Having introduced so much about the Trinity Examinations in London, let's talk about the International Examinations.     1. Emphasis on the development of all-round qualities.   Compared to music examinations in mainland China, overseas music examinations not only assess the ability to sing and play music, but also focus on the comprehensive assessment of music knowledge. These international examinations often include much more content than those in China, such as music theory, sight-reading, listening, composition and so on. This is a major requirement for the development of the candidate's overall musical quality.     2. Wide range of repertoire.   Compared to most overseas examinations at the same level, the repertoire chosen in China is more technically difficult and musically simple, so some teachers provide less training and development for children.   In addition, the choice of repertoire is narrower in China. In contrast, the repertoire for the foreign examinations is generally extensive, covering works by many composers, and a significant number of them are unfamiliar to us, both in terms of composers and works. In addition, there is a large selection of 20th century works. Much of the repertoire is musically demanding, but technically less difficult than in China by one or two grades. There are, of course, some examinations where the pieces are not only chosen from the same countries but are arranged at the same level, and these are often musically demanding pieces.     3. Active learning is encouraged.   In order to win the favour of the examiners, candidates need to consciously look at a wide range of musical literature to understand the differences in style between different periods, the history, anecdotes and stories of the major composers, the background to the creation of classical works, how to analyse the form, structure, and The most important thing is to listen to a large number of recordings to compare and analyse them, to confirm the theoretical learning, and to turn passive learning into active research, which is what our students lack most in China.   4. More emphasis on the cultivation of creativity.   For example, the Royal Conservatory of Music's music theory examination is not only professional but also interesting, including some basic compositional skills, such as the creation of rhythms and the creation of an eight-bar melody for a verse, which are essential for the development of creative skills. In addition, most of the overseas examination systems require improvisation or visual accompaniment in the performance section, which is also a means of stimulating creativity.     5. Adding weight to the international scene.   Currently, all of the music grade examinations that are widely recognised around the world come from abroad: Trinity is also recognised by the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF), which allows it to be converted into the same qualification as the education systems of many countries. For students who wish to go abroad, taking international music examinations is an opportunity to prove themselves to the world and to add a competitive edge to their qualifications when applying to UK and US institutions.     Three, a link to the London Holy Trinity examinations in Hong Kong has been found specifically for you   ""London Trinity Music Examinations""   4. How to prepare for the London Holy Trinity exam?   Apart from a thorough understanding of the exam content and related requirements, the most important thing is the student's own performance level. Are you still confused by the bottlenecks in practising? Then take a look at the Distance Violin Online Lessons at Counter Moon Music.   Now there are free online audition lessons available, so click on "Audition" to meet your favourite teacher and help you pass your exams, improve your violin playing and enjoy the beauty of music even more.    

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2022-09-12

Guitar | Circle of Fifths: 16 Applicable Ways You Can Use Right Now (Part 2b)

  In the first section of part 2, you’ve learned to use the Circle of Fifths to find:   The Diminished Chord on the Circle of Fifths The Triad Notes of a Chord on the Circle of Fifths How Many Sharps or Flats There Are Using the Circle of Fifths Which Notes are Sharp or Flat Using the Circle of Fifths   If you haven’t read it yet, go ahead and read it first and then come back to continue with today’s section, where you’ll learn more applications for the Circle of Fifths.   Using the Circle of Fifths to find Dominant Chords Using the Circle of Fifths to Identify Modal Scales (Modes) Arrange Modes from Brightest to Darkest Sound Using the Circle of Fifths to find Borrowed Chords Using the Circle of Fifths to find Intervals Using the Circle of Fifths to find Reciprocal Intervals    Let’s dive into today’s topic!     Using the Circle of Fifths to find Dominant Chords   Dominant chords (also known as the dominant 7th chord) are chords that contain a note followed by the number 7. There’s no major or minor to it. For example, G7, C7, and F#7 are all dominant chords.   To explain it simply, the purpose of a dominant chord is to create a little tension (suspense) before ending it on a major chord. For instance, if you want to add a little tension before ending on the C major chord, then the dominant chord you can play is the G7 chord. Likewise, the dominant chord before ending on the A major chord is an E7 major chord.   Finding dominant chords on the Circle of Fifths is very easy. First, base it on the chord you want to end on (or release the tension to). For example, if you want to end on the D major chord, then your dominant chord would be the note 1 degree clockwise to it, which is an A major chord.    Since there are no major nor minor to a dominant, the chord will just be called A7.   Finding a dominant chord for a minor chord is the same. Say you want to end on the B minor chord, therefore your dominant chord will be the note 1 degree clockwise to it, F#7.     Using the Circle of Fifths to Identify Modal Scales (Modes)   There are in total 7 modal scales, in order from the first mode to the seventh mode they are Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, and Locrian.   Modal scales (also known as Modes) add new variations and provide a different alternative (sound or feel) to the existing major and minor scales. You can play each of the 7 modes in each of the 12 major scales, which gives you more ways to express your music.   To learn more about modes, visit the link in the related resources section at the end of the page.   With the Circle of Fifths, you can easily remember the order of the modes by using the ‘grouping of six’. In part 1 you learned the numbering of chord progression, from 1 to 6. Using C major as the root, in order of 1 to 6 we have C(1), D(2), E(3), F(4), G(5), and A(6).   And in place of the keys instead, the numbering now represents the order of the modes, Ionian being the first mode, and Locrian being the last. And if you’re being asked to play something in the 4th mode, it means you’ll be playing in the Lydian mode.   Mode 1 – Ionian Mode – C (1) Mode 2 – Dorain Mode – D (2) Mode 3 – Phrygian Mode – E (3) Mode 4 – Lydian Mode – F (4) Mode 5 – Mixolydian Mode – G (5) Mode 6 – Aeolian Mode – A (6) Mode 7 – Locrian Mode – B (7)   You’ve found the first 6 modes using the chord progression sequence, and for the seventh mode, you’ll find it the same way you would with finding your diminished chord, the 7th-degree note from F in the outer, or the 2nd-degree note from Em in the inner circle.     Arrange Modes from Brightest to Darkest Sound   One of the key differences between the modes is that they each carry a unique sound quality, from the brightest to the darkest. Regardless of what key signature you play them in, Lydian mode will always sound the brightest, whereas the Locrian mode will always sound the darkest.   To find the modes in order of their sound quality using the key of C major, from brightest to the darkest we can use the linear method on the outer circle F, C, G, D, A, E, and B. Or the stacked method using the grouping of six.   Mode 4 – Lydian Mode – F (4) Mode 1 – Ionian Mode – C (1) Mode 5 – Mixolydian Mode – G (5) Mode 2 – Dorain Mode – D (2) Mode 6 – Aeolian Mode – A (6) Mode 3 – Phrygian Mode – E (3) Mode 7 – Locrian Mode – B (7)     Using the Circle of Fifths to find Borrowed Chords   Another simple way to add variety to your playing is to include chords that are outside of the key you’re playing in, these outside chords are called ‘Borrowed Chords’.   To find the group of borrowed chords that goes well with the key you’re playing, on the Circle of Fifths, look out for the parallel major key or minor to that you’re playing.   For example, if you’re playing in the key of C major, its parallel chord would be C minor. And your group of borrowed chords will be in the group of six based around C minor.   The same rule applies when finding borrowed chords for the other respective keys. Borrowed chords will be from the group of six from the parallel key.   To make sure you understand, let’s try another example.   If you’re playing in the key of F# minor, your borrowed chords will be from the key of F# major. Likewise, if you’re playing in the key of Bb minor, its borrowed chords will be from the key of Bb major. It’s that simple.     Using the Circle of Fifths to find Intervals   Intervals are a crucial part of learning music as it helps with ear training, allowing you to pick up different pitches by ear, and recognize the difference between 2 notes. So what is an interval?   An interval is simply the distance in pitch between 2 notes.    Each interval has its own name, and you can easily refer to the names and immediately work out the interval between 2 notes on the Circle of Fifths by following a fixed formula illustrated in the diagram.   Using C as an example for your main note, you’ll see the names of different intervals going in both clockwise and counter-clockwise directions from C.    In the clockwise direction, you have the intervals Perfect 5th, Major 2nd, Major 6th, Major 3rd, Major 7th, and finishing on an interval called the Tritone, which is always directly opposite of the main key, because it’s the furthest interval from your main note.   Going in the counter-clockwise direction, the intervals in order are Perfect 4th, Minor 7th, Minor 3rd, Minor 6th, Minor 2nd, and likewise finishing with the tritone interval.   Using this formula, you can easily see what the intervals are between the main note and the other notes.   For instance, in the example where C is your main note, you can see that the interval from C to G is a Perfect 5th, the interval from C to Eb is a Minor 3rd, and from C to B the interval is a Major 7th.    Likewise, in the diagram on the right, you rotate the interval circle clockwise to make D your main note. Now you can see that the interval from D to A is a Perfect 5th, the interval from D to F is a Minor 3rd, and the interval from D to Db is a Major 7th.     Using the Circle of Fifths to find Reciprocal Intervals   In the examples above, you’re counting intervals in ascending order from the main note to a higher-pitched note.    Regardless if you’re counting counter-clockwise to find your intervals from C to F, Bb, Eb, Ab, and D, or you’re counting clockwise to find your intervals from C to G, D, A, E, the respective interval names are all in ascending manner.   When you’re going from a lower-pitched note to a higher-pitched note, it’s called an ascending interval.    You can also go the other way in descending order, from a higher pitch to a lower pitch. This is called a descending interval, or Reciprocal Interval.   To find the Reciprocal Intervals for each note from C, you’ll need to look at the circle in halves.   Starting with the left, in ascending order, the interval from C to F is a Perfect 4th. To find the interval of C to F in descending order, just refer to the reflected position on the right side. You’ll see that it’s a Perfect Fifth. That’s your inversed (reciprocal) interval from C to F.   Likewise, the interval from C to Eb in ascending order is a Minor 3rd. By applying the same logic, the interval from C to Eb in descending order is a Major 6th.   Now let’s look at the right side of the circle. The interval from C to G in ascending order is a Perfect 5th. Apply the same inversion logic, you now know the interval from C to G in descending order is a Perfect 4th.   What about from C to E?    In ascending order the interval from C to E is a Major 3rd. On the mirrored side on the left, you now know that the interval from C to E in descending order is a Minor 6th.   To learn more about intervals in detail, check out the videos in the related resources below. Well, I hope by now, even without fully memorizing the Circle of Fifths, you can at least understand how useful it can be. Especially when you want to acquire certain information right away, you can easily work it out by using the Circle Fifths.   Keep practicing, try to draw out the Circle of Fifths (on paper, or in your mind) using the Order of Sharps and Flats and you’ll have a very powerful tool at your fingertips.   Rock On lnnl,   Related Resources:   Modes Explained Effective and Crystal Clear (Guitar Tutorial with Examples)   Interval Numbers – Intervals Made Easy (Part 1-7) – Easy Music Theory

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2022-09-12

吉他|五度圈: 16 個易懂好用的竅門 (下之2)

  在五度圈下集的第 1 部分裡,你已經學會了如何: 從五度圈上找出「減和弦」 藉由五度音圈上找到「三和弦」音符 使用五度圈來知道有多少個「升號」或「降號」 使用五度圈確定哪些音符是「升號」還是「降號」   如果你還沒有閱讀第 1 部分的話,建議你請先看完它,然後再回來繼續今天所要學習的部:   使用五度圈找到「屬和弦」 使用五度圈來識別「調式音階」 Modal Scales 用五度圈將調式音色從最明亮排列至最暗層 使用五度圈找到「借用和弦」 使用五度圈找出「音程」 使用五度圈找出「音程轉位」 那我們開始今天的課題吧!     使用五度圈找到「屬和弦」   屬和弦(又稱屬七和弦)的呈現方式是由一個音符再加上數字 7 所組成。它沒有大調或小調之分。例如,G7、C7 和 F#7 都是屬和弦。   那屬和弦又是什麼?   簡單來說,屬和弦的用途是為了在以大調和弦結束之前產生一點張力(懸念)而用。例如,如果你是以 C 大調和弦結束,之前想增加一點張力,那麼你就可以用 G7 屬和弦接 C 大調。同樣的,在 A 大調和弦結束之前,用於產生張力的就是 E7 屬和弦。   要在五度圈上找到屬和弦非常容易。首先,先確定你想要結束的和弦(或釋放張力)是什麼。例如,如果你想在 D 大和弦上結束,那麼你的屬和弦將會是此和弦順時針方向 1 度的和弦,也就是 A 。   由於屬和弦沒有大調和小調之分,因此和弦名稱為 A7。   尋找小調和弦的屬和弦也是一樣的方法。假設你想在 B 小調和弦上結束,那麼你的屬和弦將會是 B 小調順時針方向 1 度的和弦 F#,加上數字 7,就會是 F#7。   使用五度圈來識別調式音階 Modal Scales(調式 Modes)   調式音階共有 7 個,從第一個順位到第七個順排列的有「艾奧尼安調式」Ionian、「多利安調式」Dorian、「弗利吉安調式」Phrygian、「利地安調式」Lydian、「米克索利地安調式」Mixolydian、「伊奧利安調式」Aeolian 和「洛克利安調式」Locrian。   調式音階(又稱調式)簡單說是一個可為現有的大調和小調音階添加新的變化並提供不同的選擇(音色或調性)的音節類別。你可以在 12 個大調音階上分別彈奏出各自的 7 種調式,從而為你提供更多表達音樂的方式。   要了解更多有關調式音節的資訊,請到下方相關資源部分中的鏈接看看。   在五度圈上,你可以輕鬆透過「六個順階和弦」的方式記住調式的順序。在上集中,你學習了如何透過「六個順階和弦」來找出和弦進行的編號,從 1 到 6。如果以 C 大調作為根音,按照 1 到 6 的順序,「六個順階和弦」將會是 C(1)、D(2)、E(3)、F(4) 、G(5) 和 A(6)。   我們再將調式,以 C 到 B,1 到 7 的順序排列,Ionian 是第一個模式,而 Locrian 是最後一個。舉例,如果今天有人要你以第 4調式來彈奏,這表示你所用的調式就是 「利地安調式」Lydian。   Mode 調式 1 – Ionian 調式 – C (1) Mode 調式 2 – Dorain 調式 – D (2) Mode 調式 3 – Phrygian 調式 – E (3) Mode 調式 4 – Lydian 調式 – F (4) Mode 調式 5 – Mixolydian 調式 – G (5) Mode 調式 6 – Aeolian 調式 – A (6) Mode 調式 7 – Locrian 調式 – B (7)   你已經按照「六個順階和弦」找到了前 6 種調式,至於要找第七個「洛克利安調式」Locrian,跟找尋減和弦方式一樣、以 C 為主調,從外部的 F 順時針算到第 7 度音,或是從「和弦進行」的第 6 順位 Em 順時針算到第 2 度的音符。     用五度圈將調式音色從最明亮排列至最暗層   調式與調式之間的主要區別在於它們各自具有獨特的音質,從最亮到最暗。無論你使用什麼調號,Lydian 調式總是聽起來最亮,而 Locrian 調式總是聽起來最暗。   要排列出調式的明亮層度,你可以以 C 大調為主,直線式的從外圈的 F、C、G、D、A、E 和 B,從最亮的 F 到最暗的 B 排列。或是以堆疊式用「六個順階和弦」來排列。   模式 4 – 呂底亞模式 – F (4) 模式 1 – 愛奧尼亞模式 – C (1) 模式 5 – Mixolydian 模式 – G (5) 模式 2 – Dorain 模式 – D (2) 模式 6 – 風神模式 – A (6) 模式 3 – 弗里吉亞模式 – E (3) 模式 7 – Locrian 模式 – B (7)   使用五度圈找到「借用和弦」   另一種增加演奏多樣性的簡單方法是演奏你主調內的和弦以外,還可以借用其他匹配調的和弦來用。這些外部和弦稱為「借用和弦」。   要找到與你正在彈奏的調匹配的和弦,先從五度圈上找到你目前演奏調的平行調 (是Parallel Key, 不是關係調 Relative Key 哦)。   例如,如果你正在彈奏 C 大調,它的平行調就會是 C 小調。以此,可借用且匹配的借用和弦組將會是基於 C 小調的「六個順階和弦」。   在為任何調找尋借用和弦時,方法都一樣。借用和弦的根調會是你目前主調的平行調。   為了確保你理解以上的說法,讓我們再看看另一個示例。   如果你使用 F# 小調彈奏,你可用的借用和弦將來自 F# 大調。同樣的,如果你正在彈奏 Bb 小調,那 Bb 小調可用的借用和弦將來自 Bb 大調。就這麼簡單。     使用五度圈找出「音程」   音程是學習音樂的重要部分之一,因為它有助於聽力訓練,讓你可以通過聽覺來辨別不同的音高,並識別兩個音符之間的差異。那音於音之間的音程是什麼?   音程就是兩個音符之間的音高距離。   每個音程都有自己的名稱,你可以輕鬆透過五度圈來識別這些名稱,並按照圖中所示的固定公式立即計算出五度圈上 2 個音符之間的音程。   以 C 作為主要音符的示例,看到從 C 開始順時針和逆時針方向的不同音程的名稱。   在順時針方向上,從第一順位有Perfect 5th,Major 2nd,Major 6th,Major 3rd,Major 7 這幾個音程,最後在 Tritone 的音程上結尾,Tritone 是離主音最遠的距離,所以他的位置也永遠是在主音的對面。   逆時針方向則是 Perfect 4th,Minor 7th,Minor 3rd,Minor 6th,Minor 2nd,同樣以到了 Tritone 結束。   使用此公式,你就可以輕鬆查看主音符和其他音符之間的間隔。   例如,以 C 為主音的示例中,你可以看到從 C 到 G 的音程是 Perfect 5th (完全五度),從 C 到 Eb 的音程是 Minor 3rd (小三度),從 C 到 B 的音程是 Major 7th (大七度)。   同樣,在右圖中,順時針旋轉音程圓圈將 D 變為你的主要音符。現在你可以看到,從 D 到 A 的音程是 Perfect 5th (完全五度),從 D 到 F 的音程是 Minor 3rd (小 3 度),而從 D 到 Db 的音程是 Major 7th (大 7 度)。     使用五度圈找出「音程轉位」   在上面的示例中,你是由主音符往高音音符的升序方式計算音程。   無論你是逆時針計數從 C 到 F、Bb、Eb、Ab 和 D 的音程,還是順時針計數從 C 到 G、D、A、E 的音程,個音程都是升序的。   當你從一個低音往高的音算,它就被稱為上升音程。   你也可以按降序排列,從較高的音高到較低的音高。這就是「音程轉位」。   要找到 C 中每個音符的轉位音程,你需要將圓圈分成兩半來看。   從左邊開始,按升序,從 C 到 F 的音程是 Perfect 4th (完全 4 度)。如果要找出 C 到 F 的轉位音程的話,只需參考右側的反射位置即可。Pefect 4th (完全4度) 的反射位置是 Perfect 5th (完全5度)。這就是 C 到 F 的「音程轉位」。   同樣,從 C 到 Eb 升序的音程是 Minor 3rd (小三度)。藉由以上的反射邏輯, C 到 Eb 的轉位音程就變成了 Major 6th (大六度)。   現在讓我們看一下圓圈的右側。從 C 到 G 按升序排列的音程是 Perfect 5th。應用相同的反射邏輯,你就能得知 C 到 G 轉位音程是 Perfect 4th。   那從 C 到 E 呢?   按升序排列,從 C 到 E 的音程是 Major 3rd (大三度)。將此反射到左邊,你就能得知 C 到 E 轉位音程是 Minor 6th (小六度)。   如果想詳細了解更多有關音程 (Intervals) 的教學,可以查看以下相關資源中的內容。 好了,我希望到目前為止,你就算沒能記住五度圈,你也至少開始了解五度圈的好用。特別是當你想立即獲取某些信息時,你可以很輕鬆從五度圈上找到。   繼續練習,嘗試使用升號和降號的順序畫出五度圈(無論在紙上,或在你的腦海中),你將會擁有一個非常強大的工具。   Rock On lnnl,   Related Resources: Modes Explained Effective and Crystal Clear (Guitar Tutorial with Examples)   Interval Numbers – Intervals Made Easy (Part 1-7) – Easy Music Theory

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