結他和弦:一次過搞清楚咩叫 major, minor, 7th , maj 7, min 7, 9th, 11th , Dim, Aug,以後唔洗再死記Chord Shape

 

這一篇文章適合初學者,想認識結他chord結構,以及如更容易記得chords的朋友。

 

和弦Chord

Chord 是指由3個音或以上所組成的結構。

 

音程Intervals

學習Chord 之先,我們必須對音程(interval) 有一定的認識,如果你更深入了解可以到這裡

在這會簡單講解何謂interval,interval可以比喻為音與音之間的距離或空間。

而Half Steps(semitone) 和 Whole Steps(whole tone)是量度interval的單位。

 

以C key(最常用的key)為例,有以下這些音:

C  D  E  F  G  A  B  C

但不是每個音相隔的一樣的距離。

C︹D︹E︿F︹G︹A︹B︿C

 

︹代表Whole Steps

︿代表Half Steps

 

除了E至F , B至C 是Half Steps,其他都是Whole Steps。

所有Whole Steps相隔的音,C至D, D至E, F至G, etc.

都稱為 Major 2nd(大2 度)

 

而只有Half Steps相隔的音,B至C 和  E至F

就稱為 Minor 2nd  ( 小2度)

 

*要注意*

1度 X= 1個 Whole Steps

2度 X= 2個 Whole Steps

 

然後我們就需要了解甚麼是大3度(Major 3rd) 與 小3度(Minor 3rd)

以一個C Major Chord 為例,C Major 由 C E G 組成

當中C到E,相隔2 Whole Steps,這就是大3度

C︹D︹

而E到G,相隔1 Whole Steps + 1 Half Steps,這就是小3度

E︹F︿G                                                                

 

三和弦Triad

Triads(三和弦),是指由三個音所組成的和弦,

這三個音分別為根音,中音,冠音。

 

意義名

系統名

英文名

例:C Major

冠音

五音

fifth

G

中音

三音

third

E

根音

一音

root

C

 

那麼, 我們要如果分辨Major 與 Minor呢?

前面提過Major Chord 是由 大3度 與 小3度組成

C Major:

C <大3度> E <小3度> G

 

而Minor Chord 其實是由 小3度 與 大3度組成

E Minor:

E <小3度> G <大3度> B

 

減三和弦(Diminished) 與 增三和弦(Augmented)

Diminished: 由 小3度 與 小3度組成

e.g. B dim

B <小3度> D <小3度> F

Augmented: 由 大3度 與 大3度組成

e.g. C aug 

C <大3度> E <大3度> G

 

更容易記得的方法 Simply remember:

Aug = major, sharp 5th

Dim = minor, flat 5th

以上就是四種三和弦(traid),Major,Minor,Diminished 和 Augmented

以下以C為例

C

音Notes

音程Intervals

Major

C   E   G

1   3   5

<Major 3rd> 

<Minor 3rd>

Minor

C   E♭  G

1   ♭3   5

<Minor 3rd> 

<Major 3rd>

Diminished

C   E♭  G♭

1   ♭3   ♭5

<Minor 3rd> 

<Minor 3rd>

Augmented

C   E   G♯

1    3   ♯5

<Major 3rd> 

<Major 3rd>

   

 

Triad 由三個音組成,那為什麼平常用的Guitar Chords 會多過三個音呢? 是因為當中有些音double/重複了

e.g. 以下以C Major 與 E Minor為例

X C E G C E

Double 了 C (root note) 和 E (third note)

E B E G B E

Triple了 E (root note) 和 Double了 B (Fifth note)

所以我們最常用的open chords其實都是三和弦Triad。

 

七和弦 7th Chords

七和弦有很多在這會集中了4個較常見的

和弦名稱

Chord Name

又名

Also known as

Notes

例: C

  Major 7th

maj7, M7

1, 3, 5, 7

C  E  G  B

  Dominant 7th

7, dom7

1, 3, 5, ♭7

C  E  G  ♭B

  Minor 7th

min7, m7

1, ♭3, 5, ♭7

C  ♭E  G  ♭B

  Half-Diminished    7th

m7(b5), -7b5, ∅

1, ♭3, ♭5, ♭7

C  ♭E ♭G  ♭B

 

延伸和弦Extended chord

Extended Chord 是三和弦在第七音以上加上更多音的和弦,

9和弦,11和弦,13和弦都屬Extended Chord。

 *要注意*

  • 第9音等於第2音

  • 第11音等於第4音

  • 第13音等於第6音

9和弦 9th Chords 

和弦名稱

Chord Name

Notes

例: C

  Major 9th

1, 3, 5, 7, 9

C  E  G  B  D

  Dominant 9th

1, 3, 5, ♭7, 9

C  E  G  ♭B   D

  Minor 9th

1, ♭3, 5, ♭7, 9

C  ♭E  G  ♭B   D

大多數Chords中,第2音代表第9音。絕少情況下Major9 會寫成 Major2,但如出現這情況,2 與 9其實是相同。

如果你不能用到所有的音在指板上,可以選擇去除第5音,對和弦整體感覺沒有太大影響。

 

 11和弦 11th Chords 

為了減少不和諧(dissonance),多數11和弦會作為一個掛留和弦(suspended chord) ,略去三音(Third)。11和弦不同於sus4和弦,sus4 通常只有(1 4 5 ♭7)。

和弦名稱

Chord Name

Notes

例: C

  Major 11th

1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11

C  E  G  B  D  F

  Dominant 11th

1, 3, 5, ♭7, 9, 11

C  E  G  ♭B   D   F

  Minor 11th

1, ♭3, 5, ♭7, 9, 11

C  ♭E  G  ♭B   D   F

什麼類型的音樂會常用到extended chords 與 7th Chord呢?

Jazz, jazz fusion, funk 經常使用extended chords 與 7th Chord在他們的音樂中。

很多時候他們去除五音與根音,因為根音(root) 可以交由bass結他手彈奏。

雖然Jazz, funk和 Blues 等音樂常使用extended chords 與 7th Chord,但其實在我們日常彈奏結他時都可以使用適量這些 Chord,這樣可以令音樂更獨特,更有色彩。想了解詳細如何使用extended chords 與 7th Chord,就要留意我們的部落格

要彈奏獨特音樂,知識,技巧固然重要,但擁有好又合適的結他和器材同樣重要,可以令你的音樂昇華。這裡有五種電吉他新手需要的配件,想了解可以到這裡

 

Guitar Chords: Understand what is major, minor, 7th, maj 7, min 7, 9th, 11th , Dim, Aug

 

This article is for beginners, people who want to understand how a chord is formed and people that want to memorize chords in a much easier way.

 

Chord

A Chord is a type of musical structure, built from 3 or more notes.

 

Intervals

Before learning how a chord is formed, we need to learn what is Interval.

In a simple way to explain, Intervals is the distance/space between each note. Half Steps(semitone) and Whole Steps(whole tone) is the unit that measures interval.

In a key, there have 7 notes, take C key (the most common key)

It has the notes:

C  D  E  F  G  A  B  C

But not each note has the same intervals(distance/space) between each other.

C︹D︹E︿F︹G︹A︹B︿C

︹Whole Steps

︿Half Steps

 

It’s all Whole Steps, beside E to F, and B to C.

For notes there are 1 step like C to D, D to E, F to G, etc.

It’s called Major 2nd

 

While for notes there are 1/2 step like B to C and E to F

It’s called Minor 2nd

*Pay Attenion*

Interval X=  Steps

 

Than we need to understand what is Major 3rd and Minor 3rd

Take C Major Chord as a example, C Major formed by C  E  G

From C to E, it has 2 Whole Steps, and this is equal Major 3rd

C︹D︹

 

From E  to G, it has 1 Whole Steps, and this is equal Minor 3rd

E︹F︿                      

 

Triads

Triads is the most common chord type that we used, chords that consist of 3 notes, 

these 3 notes are called root, third and the fifth, which root has the lowest pitch and fifth has the highest. 

Note name

eg: C Major

fifth

G

third

E

root

C

So, what factor determines a chord to be Major or Minor?

Major Chord consist of Major 3rd and Minor 3rd from the root of the chord

C Major:

C <Major 3rd> E <Minor 3rd> G

 

Minor Chord consist of Minor 3rd and Major 3rd from the root of the chord

E Minor:

E<Minor 3rd> G <Major 3rd>B

 

Diminished and Augmented

Diminished Chord consist of Minor 3rd and Minor 3rd

e.g. B dim

B<Minor 3rd> D <Minor 3rd> F 

 

Augmented Chord consist of Major 3rd and Major 3rd

e.g. C aug 

C <Major 3rd> E <Major 3rd> G

Simply remember:

Aug = major, sharp 5th

Dim = minor, flat 5th

Above is the four type of trai, Major, Minor, Diminished and Augmented

e.g. C

 

 

C

Notes

Intervals

Major

C   E   G

1   3   5

<Major 3rd> 

<Minor 3rd>

Minor

C   E♭  G

1   ♭3   5

<Minor 3rd> 

<Major 3rd>

Diminished

C   E♭  G♭

1   ♭3   ♭5

<Minor 3rd> 

<Minor 3rd>

Augmented

C   E   G♯

1    3   ♯5

<Major 3rd> 

<Major 3rd>

Triad formed by three notes, but why usually Guitar Chords have more than three notes? Because there are notes that are doubled/repeated

e.g. C Major and E Minor

X C E G C E

Doubled C (root note) and E (third note)

 

E B E G B E

Tripled E (root note) and Doubled B (Fifth note)

Thus, the most common open chords are actually Triad.

 

7th Chords

There are lots of 7th Chords, so here we just focus on these four common ones.

 

Chord Name

Also known as

Notes

e.g.: C

  Major 7th

maj7, M7

1, 3, 5, 7

C  E  G  B

  Dominant 7th

7, dom7

1, 3, 5, ♭7

C  E  G  ♭B

  Minor 7th

min7, m7

1, ♭3, 5, ♭7

C  ♭E  G  ♭B

  Half-Diminished 7th

m7(b5), -7b5, ∅

1, ♭3, ♭5, ♭7

C  ♭E ♭G  ♭B

 

 


 

Extended chord

triads with notes extend or added, beyond the seventh.

Ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth chords are extended chords.

A few things to note here, when writing or reading chords…

  • The 9th is the same as the 2nd

  • The 11th is the same as the 4th

  • The 13th is the same as the 6th

 

9th Chords  

Chord Name

Notes

e.g.: C

  Major 9th

1, 3, 5, 7, 9

C  E  G  B  D

  Dominant 9th

1, 3, 5, ♭7, 9

C  E  G  ♭B   D

  Minor 9th

1, ♭3, 5, ♭7, 9

C  ♭E  G  ♭B   D

In most chords, the 2nd becomes the 9th. Rarely maj9 is written as maj2, but if it does, you know 2 and 9 are referencing the same interval.

If you can't include all the tones in the chord for your fingering, you may leave out the 5th; it won't lose the character of the chord.

11th chords 

It's more common to use the 11th in the context of a suspended (no 3rd) chord, to avoid dissonance. an 11th chord differ from a standard sus4 chord, which only tends to include up to the b7 (1 4 5 ♭7).

 

Chord Name

Notes

e.g.: C

  Major 11th

1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11

C  E  G  B  D  F

  Dominant 11th

1, 3, 5, ♭7, 9, 11

C  E  G  ♭B   D   F

  Minor 11th

1, ♭3, 5, ♭7, 9, 11

C  ♭E  G  ♭B   D   F

 

What genres of music used extended chords and 7th Chords frequently?

Jazz, jazz fusion, funk all have been seen to use extended chords and 7th Chords as a main part of their sound. 

When extended chords are voiced in jazz or jazz fusion, the root and fifth are often omitted from the chord voicing, because the root is played by the bass player.

Although, Jazz, funk and Blues used a lot of extended chords and 7th Chords, these chords can be applied to our daily playing of music and practice, it can make our music be more unique and colourful. Want to know furthermore about how to use extended chords and 7th Chords, stay tune to our blog.

Knowledge and technique are important for producing great music, but good gear, guitar and equipment are vital as well, it can take you to the next level. Here’s items you need while playing electric guitar.